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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM TO

Commission File Number 001-40693

 

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/9eaddd3c5674c5d2d126920866ca177e-img114804231_0.jpg 

RALLYBIO CORPORATION

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

85-1083789

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

234 Church Street, Suite 1020

New Haven, CT

06510

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (203) 859-3820

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

 

RLYB

 

The NASDAQ Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. YES ☐ No

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. YES ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ NO ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ NO ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

 

Accelerated filer

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by checkmark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b) ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). YES ☐ NO

 

The aggregate market value of the registrant's voting common stock held by non-affiliates as of June 30, 2022 was approximately $120.7 million, based on the closing price of the registrant’s common stock as reported by Nasdaq on that date.
The number of shares of Registrant’s Common Stock outstandin
g as of March 1, 2023 was 38,075,024.

 


 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement for its 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders scheduled to be held on May 17, 2023, which Definitive Proxy will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after the registrant’s fiscal year end of December 31, 2022 are incorporated by reference into Part II and Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 


 

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements that are based on management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to management. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “could,” “intend,” “target,” “project,” “contemplate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning:

the initiation, timing, progress, results, and cost of our research and development programs, and our current and future preclinical and clinical studies, including statements regarding the timing of initiation and completion of our clinical trials for RLYB212, RLYB116 and RLYB331, and the natural history study for our fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia ("FNAIT") prevention program, and related preparatory work, and the period during which the results of the trials will become available;
the success, cost and timing of our clinical development of our product candidates, including RLYB212, RLYB116, RLYB114 and RLYB331;
our ability to initiate, recruit and enroll patients in and conduct our clinical trials at the pace that we project;
our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our product candidates, and any related restrictions, limitations or warnings in the label of any of our product candidates, if approved;
our ability to compete with companies currently marketing or engaged in the development of treatments for diseases that our product candidates are designed to target, including paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria ("PNH") and generalized myasthenia gravis ("gMG");
our reliance on third parties to conduct our clinical trials;
our reliance on third parties to manufacture drug substance for use in our clinical trials;
the size and growth potential of the markets for RLYB212, RLYB116, RLYB114, RLYB331 and any of our current product candidates or other product candidates we may identify and pursue, and our ability to serve those markets;
our ability to expand our pipeline through collaborations, partnerships and other transactions with third parties;
our ability to identify and advance through clinical development any additional product candidates;
the commercialization of our current product candidates and any other product candidates we may identify and pursue, if approved, including our ability to successfully build commercial infrastructure or enter into collaborations with third parties to market our current product candidates and any other product candidates we may identify and pursue;
our ability to retain and recruit key personnel;
our ability to obtain and maintain adequate intellectual property rights;
our expectations regarding government and third-party payor coverage and reimbursement;
our estimates of our expenses, ongoing losses, capital requirements and our needs for or ability to obtain additional financing;
our expected uses of the net proceeds from our initial public offering and any subsequent offerings;
the potential benefits of strategic collaboration agreements, including our agreements with Exscientia Limited ("Exscientia") and AbCellera, our ability to enter into strategic collaborations or arrangements, including potential business development opportunities and potential licensing partnerships, and our ability to attract collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;
our expectations regarding the time during which we will be an emerging growth company under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012;
our financial performance;
developments and projections relating to our competitors or our industry; and
other risks and uncertainties, including those listed under the section titled “Risk Factors.”

i


 

 

The forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are only predictions and are based largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and are subject to a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described under the sections in this Annual Report on Form 10-K entitled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified and some of which are beyond our control, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as guarantees of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual future results, levels of activity, performance and events and circumstances could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risks and uncertainties may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for management to predict all risks and uncertainties. Except as required by applicable law, we are not obligated to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein, whether as a result of any new information, future events, changed circumstances or otherwise.

 

Trademarks

We use Rallybio as a trademark in the United States and/or in other countries. This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains references to our trademark and to those belonging to other entities, including Affibody® and Albumod®. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including logos, artwork and other visual displays, may appear without the ® or TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate in any way that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other entities’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other entity.

 

Risk Factor Summary

Our business is subject to a number of risks that are discussed more fully in the “Risk Factors” section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. These risks include the following:

We have incurred significant losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur losses in the foreseeable future. We have not commercialized any products and have never generated revenue from the commercialization of any product. We are not currently profitable, and we may never achieve or sustain profitability;
We will require significant additional capital to fund our operations, and if we fail to obtain necessary financing, we may not be able to complete the development and commercialization of RLYB212, RLYB116, or any additional product candidates we may develop;
Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidates;
We are heavily dependent on the success of RLYB212 and RLYB116, which are in early-stage clinical development. If we are not able to develop, obtain regulatory approval for, or successfully commercialize our product candidates, or if we experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed;
We may not be successful in our efforts to identify additional product candidates. Due to our limited resources and access to capital, we must prioritize development of certain product candidates, the choice of which may prove to be wrong and adversely affect our business;
Preclinical studies and clinical trials are expensive, time consuming, and difficult to design and implement, and involve uncertain outcomes. Any product candidates that we advance into clinical trials may not achieve favorable results in later clinical trials, if any, or receive marketing approval. We may incur additional costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of our product candidates;
Enrollment and retention of patients in clinical trials is an expensive and time-consuming process and could be made more difficult or rendered impossible by multiple factors outside our control, including our focus on rare diseases;

ii


 

Results of preclinical studies, clinical trials, or analyses that we may announce or publish from time to time, may not be indicative of results obtained in later trials, and any interim results we may publish could be different than final results;
Any product candidates that we develop or the administration thereof, may cause serious adverse events or undesirable side effects, which may halt their clinical development, delay or prevent marketing approval, or, if approved, require them to be taken off the market, include safety warnings, or otherwise limit their sales;
The regulatory approval processes of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the "FDA"), the European Medicines Agency (the "EMA"), and comparable foreign regulatory authorities, including the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency in the United Kingdom (the “MHRA”), are lengthy, time-consuming, and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for RLYB212, RLYB116 or any of our other product candidates, our business will be substantially harmed;
Our product candidates target rare diseases and conditions, and the market opportunities for RLYB212, RLYB116 and any of our other product candidates, if approved, may be smaller than we anticipate. As a result, our commercial opportunity may be limited and because the target populations of our product candidates are for rare diseases, we must be able to successfully identify patients and capture a significant market share to achieve profitability and growth;
The FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities could require the clearance or approval of an in vitro diagnostic or companion diagnostic device as a condition of approval for any product candidate that requires or would commercially benefit from such tests, including RLYB212. Failure to successfully validate, develop and obtain regulatory clearance or approval for companion diagnostics on a timely basis or at all could harm our drug development strategy and we may not realize the commercial potential of any such product candidate;
We face significant competition from biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies, and our operating results will suffer if we fail to compete effectively;
We intend to continue to acquire or in-license rights to additional product candidates or collaborate with third parties for the development and commercialization of our product candidates. We may not succeed in identifying and acquiring businesses or assets, in-licensing intellectual property rights or establishing and maintaining collaborations, which may significantly limit our ability to successfully develop and commercialize our other product candidates, if at all, and these transactions could disrupt our business, cause dilution to our stockholders or reduce our financial resources; and
If we are unable to obtain, maintain and enforce patent protection for our technology and product candidates, or if the scope of the patent protection obtained is not sufficiently broad, our competitors could develop and commercialize technology and products similar or identical to ours, and our ability to successfully develop and commercialize our technology and product candidates may be adversely affected.

 

The foregoing is only a summary of some of our risks. For a more detailed discussion of these and other risks you should consider before making an investment in our common stock, see “Risk Factors.”

 

iii


 

 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

Page

PART I.

 

 

Item 1.

Business

1

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

45

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

96

Item 2.

Properties

96

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

96

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosure

96

 

 

 

PART II.

 

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

96

Item 6.

Reserved

98

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

98

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

111

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

111

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

111

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

111

Item 9B.

Other Information

112

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

112

 

 

 

PART III.

 

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

112

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

112

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

112

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

112

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

112

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

112

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

115

 

iv


 

PART I

Item 1. Business.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company committed to identifying and accelerating the development of life-transforming therapies for patients with severe and rare diseases. Since our launch in January 2018, we have built a portfolio of promising product candidates, which are now in development to address rare diseases in the areas of maternal fetal blood disorders, complement dysregulation, hematology, and metabolic disorders. We have assembled a team of experienced biopharma industry leaders with extensive research, development, and rare disease expertise to deliver on our mission of becoming a leader in the development of therapies for patients with rare diseases. We are drawing on our decades of knowledge and experience with a determination to tackle the undone, the too difficult, the inaccessible – and change the odds for rare disease patients.

Our Approach

At Rallybio Corporation (the "Company"), we do not accept that millions of patients suffering from devastating rare diseases should have to live without transformative treatments. There are an estimated 25 to 30 million people affected by as many as 7,000 rare diseases in the United States alone, with a significantly greater number of affected people globally. We are building a diversified pipeline of product candidates that we believe have the potential to transform the lives of patients in need. Our goal is to deliver therapeutics that provide meaningful clinical benefits to patients so they can become unbound and undefined by the diseases from which they suffer.

We believe the success of the Company is built on three key strengths:

Our extensive knowledge of rare diseases and our scientific expertise positions us to identify therapies with the potential for transformative impact. We seek to acquire and develop product candidates that possess a clear mechanism of action and that aim to address diseases with a well-understood pathophysiology for which there is a significant unmet medical need. We believe that a product candidate’s mechanism of action should target the causal biology of the disease to provide the highest probability of dramatically improving the lives of patients. We believe that our team’s extensive experience in rare diseases and our scientific expertise position us to identify opportunities where these links can be made, which may go unnoticed by others.
Our ability to source, identify and evaluate potential high-quality product candidates. We apply decades of experience across drug discovery, research, development, regulatory strategy and manufacturing to source, identify and evaluate therapeutic targets and product candidates that we believe have a high probability of success. Our ability to source these product candidates is facilitated by our extensive network of relationships with leaders in industry and in academic centers worldwide. We view ourselves as partners of choice given our team’s track record of success in developing and delivering new therapies to patients.
Our team’s proven execution capability to drive product candidates through clinical development to regulatory approvals. We have assembled a team with a proven history of successfully advancing product candidates from discovery to clinical development and through regulatory approval. Members of our team have played critical roles in the approval of more than 30 drugs, including seven approvals for rare disease therapeutics since 2013, and secured approvals from regulatory authorities in the Americas, Europe, Australia and Asia. In doing so, our employees previously developed and implemented novel clinical trial designs and successfully conducted clinical trials in never-before treated patient populations. We believe this collective prior experience positions us to efficiently and expertly execute at each step in the research and development process and enhances the value we can bring to product candidates and patients.

Our Team

Our founders, Martin W. Mackay, Ph.D., Stephen Uden, M.D., and Jeffrey M. Fryer, CPA, were previously executives at Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc.("Alexion"), and worked together to successfully build, develop, and launch transformative therapies for patients with rare diseases. Several members of our team were integral in the successful development and/or approval of therapies such as Strensiq (asfotase alfa) for patients with perinatal-, infantile-, and juvenile-onset hypophosphatasia ("HPP"), Kanuma (sebelipase alfa) for patients with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency ("LAL-D"), Nulibry (fosdenopterin) for patients with molybdenum cofactor deficiency ("MoCD

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Type A"), Soliris (eculizumab) for patients with refractory generalized myasthenia gravis ("gMG"), Soliris for patients with relapsing neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder ("NMOSD"), Ultomiris (ravulizumab-cwvz), for patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria ("PNH") and Ultomiris for patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome ("aHUS").

In January 2023, Rallybio announced the appointment of Jonathan I. Lieber as Chief Financial Officer ("CFO"), effective February 1, 2023. Mr. Lieber succeeds Jeffrey Fryer, CPA, Rallybio’s Co-Founder and former CFO. The Company announced Mr. Fryer’s retirement in June 2022, and following a transition period with Mr. Lieber, Mr. Fryer departed the Company on February 15, 2023. Mr. Lieber brings more than 30 years of experience as a CFO for public and private life sciences companies and an investment banker.

We believe our team’s prior contributions have made a significant positive impact on the lives of thousands of patients around the world. As a strong and experienced team, we believe we can transform the lives of thousands more.

Our Pipeline

Our pipeline is illustrated in the chart below:

https://cdn.kscope.io/9eaddd3c5674c5d2d126920866ca177e-img114804231_1.jpg 

FNAIT: Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia; HPA-1a: Human platelet antigen-1a; C5: Complement component 5; ABD: Albumin-binding domain; HPP: Hypophosphatasia; ENPP1: Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1

 

*Disease areas under consideration: hematology, including disorders such as PNH, neurology, including disorders such as gMG and severe dermatologic indications


Prevention of FNAIT

Our product candidate is targeting the prevention of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia ("FNAIT") a potentially life-threatening rare disease that can cause uncontrolled bleeding in fetuses and newborns. FNAIT can arise during pregnancy due to an immune incompatibility between an expectant mother and her fetus in a specific platelet antigen called human platelet antigen 1 ("HPA-1"). This incompatibility can cause an expectant mother to develop antibodies that attack the platelets of her fetus. The destruction of platelets in the fetus can result in severely low platelet counts, or thrombocytopenia, potentially leading to devastating consequences including miscarriage, stillbirth, death of the newborn, or severe lifelong neurological disability in those babies who survive. There is currently no approved therapy for the prevention or treatment of FNAIT.

We estimate that there are over 22,000 pregnancies at high risk of developing FNAIT each year in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, other major European countries and Australia. Because there are no approved therapies to prevent FNAIT, expectant mothers are not currently screened for FNAIT risk. As a result, the vast majority of pregnancies at risk for FNAIT go unidentified and untreated. In those pregnancies that are identified as at-risk, typically due to the delivery of a prior FNAIT affected child, expectant mothers may be treated with weekly intravenously-administered high doses of immunoglobulin G, ("IVIG"), along with the oral steroid immunosuppressant prednisone. However, IVIG administration does not prevent the immune response, called alloimmunization, and is costly, time-intensive, difficult to tolerate and associated with significant treatment-related complications.

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In 2019, we acquired all rights to RLYB211 and RLYB212, two anti-HPA-1a antibody candidates, from Prophylix AS ("Prophylix"). We believe that targeting HPA-1a with an anti-HPA-1a antibody has the potential to drive rapid elimination of HPA-1a positive platelets from the circulation of expectant mothers and prevent alloimmunization and thereby, the occurrence of FNAIT.

RLYB211 is an intravenously administered polyclonal anti-HPA-1a antibody derived from the plasma of women who have developed antibodies to HPA-1a from a prior HPA-1 incompatible pregnancy. We believe data from our Phase 1/2 clinical trial for RLYB211, initially presented in July 2021 at the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (“ISTH”) Congress and subsequently published in the Journal of Thrombosis and Hemostasis (Geisen et al., 2022, In Press), demonstrate that RLYB211 rapidly and completely eliminates HPA-1a-positive platelets in HPA-1a negative subjects, establishing proof-of-mechanism for the ability of an anti-HPA-1a antibody to cause rapid platelet elimination.

 

RLYB212 is a subcutaneously administered human monoclonal anti-HPA-1a antibody that has the same mechanism of action as RLYB211, with favorable attributes supporting its potential as a first-in-class candidate for the prevention of HPA-1a maternal alloimmunization and the occurrence of FNAIT, including:

the potential for low volume subcutaneous prophylactic administration, which is the preferred route of administration based on primary market research with OB/GYNs and Maternal-Fetal Medicine specialists in the United States and Europe;
a pharmacokinetic ("PK") profile that has the potential to maintain circulating concentrations of anti-HPA-1a antibody at levels that are very close to peak exposure levels through the entire treatment period, thus maximizing the capacity of RLYB212 to neutralize fetal antigen; and
the ability to produce using standard monoclonal antibody manufacturing methods.
 

We have received approval for two clinical trial applications ("CTAs") for RLYB212 in Germany; the first for a Phase 1 first-in-human trial and the second for a Phase 1b proof of concept trial. In January 2022, we announced that the first subjects were dosed in the Phase 1 study. This ongoing single-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 1 study is designed to evaluate the safety and PK of single and repeat subcutaneous doses of RLYB212 in HPA-1a negative healthy subjects. In the second quarter of 2022, we initiated the Phase 1b proof-of-concept study to evaluate the ability of subcutaneous RLYB212 to rapidly eliminate transfused HPA-1a positive platelets from the circulation of HPA-1a negative healthy subjects. In the third quarter of 2022, we announced preliminary results from the proof-of-concept study, demonstrating RLYB212 rapidly and completely eliminates HPA-1a positive platelets with a greater than 90% reduction of the mean platelet elimination half-life compared to placebo, consistent with proof-of-concept criteria. We also announced that dosing had commenced under an amended protocol that expanded the dose range of RLYB212, with a goal of providing a broader range of PK and pharmacodynamics (“PD”) data.

In the first quarter of 2023, we announced proof-of-concept in the Phase 1b study for RLYB212. Results showed that one week after a single subcutaneous dose, RLYB212 was able to rapidly and completely eliminate transfused, HPA-1a positive platelets in HPA-1a negative subjects with additional findings from the study that show a reduction in mean platelet elimination half-life was greater than 90% in both RLYB212 dose groups compared to placebo and was dose related. RLYB212 was also observed to be well-tolerated with no serious adverse events reported. The broad range of PK and PD data in the Phase 1b study will allow for substantive modeling to inform dose selection for a future registrational study. The Company expects to report the complete dataset from the Phase 1b clinical study of RLYB212 at a scientific conference in 2023.

In the first quarter of 2023 we also initiated the multi-dose cohort of its single-center Phase 1 trial in Europe. This portion of the Phase 1 study will evaluate safety and PK of RLYB212 based on repeat dosing over 12 weeks in healthy male and female participants. We expect results from this cohort of subjects in the fourth quarter of 2023.

Given the favorable development profile of RLYB212 to date, the data generated to date for RLYB212, and manufacturing and supply efficiencies, we have discontinued the development of RLYB211.

Additionally, we are conducting a FNAIT natural history alloimmunization study. This prospective, non-interventional, multinational natural history study is designed to screen up to 30,000 expectant mothers presenting at Gestation Week 10 to 14 prenatal visit to determine the frequency of women at higher FNAIT risk among expectant mothers of different racial and ethnic characteristics, as well as the frequency of HPA-1a alloimmunization and pregnancy outcomes among these women. Subject to discussion with regulatory authorities, we expect that data from this study will contribute to a control dataset for a future single-arm Phase 2/3 registration trial for RLYB212. An additional objective of the FNAIT natural history study is to operationalize de

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novo the laboratory test paradigm for FNAIT risk and generate FNAIT laboratory test performance data that we plan to use for future regulatory discussions. Screening of expectant mothers is ongoing.
 

Treatment of Disorders Due to Complement Dysregulation

The complement system plays a central role in innate immunity, as well as, shaping adaptive immune response. Dysregulation of the complement pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a growing number of diseases, making it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.

Antibody inhibitors of complement component 5 ("C5") have been successfully developed to treat diseases caused by complement pathway dysregulation, including PNH, aHUS, refractory gMG and relapsing NMOSD. Despite the approval of antibody-based C5 inhibitors for patients with these diseases, we believe there remains significant need in the market for safe, effective, patient-friendly and accessible therapies.

Our team has a track record of success and significant expertise in designing, developing and securing approval for complement inhibitors, including Soliris and Ultomiris, for patients around the world with severe and rare complement-mediated diseases. We believe this knowledge and expertise positions us to successfully advance our programs and deliver transformative benefits to patients in need of an improved or alternative therapeutic.

Our most advanced product candidate in this therapeutic area is RLYB116, an inhibitor of complement factor C5, which is a central component of the complement pathway. RLYB116 is an Affibody molecule attached to an albumin binding domain that has the potential to drive the rapid, complete and sustained inhibition of C5 with a subcutaneous injection. We received approval in the fourth quarter of 2021 for a Human Research Ethics Committee ("HREC") submission to support a Phase 1 trial of RLYB116 in healthy participants and in the first quarter of 2022, we initiated the Phase 1 trial in Australia. The single-blind, placebo-controlled dose escalation study is designed to evaluate the safety, PK, and PD of single dose and multiple dose RLYB116 in healthy participants. In November 2022, we announced preliminary results from our Phase 1 single ascending dose study of RLYB116. The preliminary data showed that all study participants that were administered a single 1 mL subcutaneous injection of 100 mg of RLYB116 (n=6) demonstrated a reduction in free C5 greater than 99% within 24 hours of dosing. The terminal elimination half-life of RLYB116 was greater than 300 hours. Subcutaneously administered RLYB116 was observed to be generally well-tolerated at the 100 mg dose, with some mild adverse events but no drug-related serious adverse events reported. In the fourth quarter of 2022, we initiated the multiple ascending dose Phase 1 study of RLYB116. The single-blind, dose escalation, placebo-controlled study is designed to evaluate the safety, PK, and PD of RLYB116 in healthy participants. Initial data from the ongoing multiple ascending dose study are expected in the fourth quarter of 2023.

Disease areas under consideration for RLYB116 include PNH, gMG and severe and rare dermatologic diseases.

Our second C5 inhibitor, RLYB114, is a pegylated C5-targeted Affibody molecule with PK properties designed for the treatment of complement-mediated ophthalmic diseases. We continue to advance the development of RLYB114, formulated for intravitreal injection, for the treatment of ophthalmic disorders with a goal to partner this program with a company that specializes in ophthalmology drug development.
 

Hematological Disorders

In May 2022, we obtained worldwide exclusive rights to RLYB331, a preclinical antibody. We believe RLYB331 has the potential to address a significant unmet need for patients with severe anemias with ineffective erythropoiesis and iron overload, including beta thalassemia and a subset of lower risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Currently these patients are underserved by the existing standard of care. RLYB331 is a monoclonal antibody that is designed to inhibit Matriptase-2 ("MTP-2"). The inhibition of MTP-2 significantly increases levels of hepcidin, decreases iron load and treats ineffective erythropoiesis. We continue to conduct investigational new drug ("IND")-enabling activities for RLYB331, to support the transition of this asset into clinical development.
 

Artificial Intelligence Drug Discovery Collaboration

We have established a partnership with Exscientia Limited ("Exscientia"), an Oxford, UK-based artificial intelligence ("AI") and machine learning drug discovery company with a proprietary chemical design platform, to rapidly and efficiently discover novel small molecule drug candidates. Our partnership consists of a joint venture, focused on the discovery and development of small molecule therapeutics for the treatment of patients with rare metabolic diseases.

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The joint venture is focused on targeting an Ectonucleotide Pyrophosphatase/ Phosphodiesterase 1 ("ENPP1") inhibitor for the treatment of HPP. HPP is a rare, genetic disease characterized by mutations in the ALPL gene. The ALPL gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, which plays an important role in the growth and development of bones and teeth. The incidence of HPP has been reported to be 1 in 100,000 to 1 in 300,000 (United States and Canada) for severe disease and 1 in 6,370 (European Union) for less severe forms. These mutations lead to diminished activity of the alkaline phosphatase enzyme and the accumulation of inorganic pyrophosphate (“PPi”), which inhibits bone mineralization causing multiple skeletal pathologies. We believe that a small molecule inhibitor of ENPP1 has the potential to bring meaningful benefit to HPP patients by reducing excess levels of pyrophosphate, thereby removing an inhibitor of calcium mineralization and bone formation.

In vivo efficacy data are expected in the second half of 2023. Following those results, the companies expect to commence IND-enabling studies.

AbCellera Collaboration

In December 2022, we entered into a strategic alliance to discover, develop, and commercialize novel antibody-based therapeutics for rare diseases. This multi-year, multi-target collaboration will combine AbCellera’s antibody discovery engine with Rallybio’s clinical and commercial expertise in rare diseases to identify optimal clinical candidates with a goal of delivering therapies to patients.

Under the terms of the agreement, AbCellera and Rallybio will co-develop up to five rare disease therapeutic targets, which will be chosen together by both companies. The collaboration will allow Rallybio to add product candidates to our existing pipeline with the option for AbCellera to conduct process development and clinical manufacturing activities. The partnership’s first program will focus on addressing the significant unmet therapeutic needs of patients with rare metabolic diseases.

Our Strategy

Our mission is aligned with our expertise: to identify and accelerate the development of life-transforming therapies for patients with severe and rare disorders. To achieve this mission, our strategy includes the following key components:

Establish a leading rare disease company through a team that delivers transformative medicines to patients. We believe our team’s expertise and knowledge are fundamental to our long-term success. Our research and development team is led by experienced drug development executives who were integral in the approvals of more than 30 drugs from leading companies, including Alexion, Astellas Pharma Inc., Wyeth, LLC and Pfizer Inc. We plan to continue to leverage our team’s expertise to enable focused clinical development of multiple product candidates in parallel, resulting in a diversified portfolio that we believe will provide multiple opportunities to create value by significantly improving the lives of patients.
Advance RLYB212 through clinical development for the prevention of FNAIT. In the first quarter of 2023 we announced proof-of-concept for RLYB212 in a Phase 1b study. The results showed that one week after a single subcutaneous dose, RLYB212 was able to rapidly and completely eliminate transfused, HPA-1a positive platelets in HPA-1a negative subjects with additional findings from the study that show a reduction in mean platelet elimination half-life was greater than 90% in both RLYB212 dose groups compared to placebo and was dose related. In the first quarter of 2023 we also initiated the multi-dose cohort of a single-center Phase 1 trial in Europe. This portion of the Phase 1 study will evaluate safety and PK of RLYB212 based on repeat dosing over 12 weeks in healthy male and female participants. We expect to report results from this cohort of subjects in the fourth quarter of 2023.
Advance RLYB116 into and through clinical development for the treatment of diseases of complement dysregulation. We received approval in the fourth quarter of 2021 for a HREC submission to support the initiation of a RLYB116 Phase 1 trial in healthy participants. In 2022, we announced positive topline results from this Phase 1 single ascending dose study of RLYB116. The preliminary data showed that all study participants that were administered a single 1 mL subcutaneous injection of 100 mg of RLYB116 (n=6) demonstrated a reduction in free C5 greater than 99% within 24 hours of dosing. The terminal elimination half-life of RLYB116 was greater than 300 hours. Subcutaneously administered RLYB116 was observed to be generally well-tolerated at the 100 mg dose, with mild adverse events and no drug-related serious adverse events reported. In the fourth quarter of 2022, we initiated the multiple ascending dose Phase 1 study of RLYB116. The single-blind,

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dose escalation, placebo-controlled study is designed to evaluate the safety, PK, and PD of RLYB116 in healthy participants. Initial data from this study are expected in the fourth quarter of 2023.
Advance our preclinical candidates, RLYB114 and RLYB331 through preclinical development. We believe that both RLYB114 and RLYB331 have significant potential to meet the unmet needs of patients and are currently working on activities to support the preclinical development of both of these product candidates. In the case of RLYB331 we intend to continue advancement of IND-enabling activities to support transition of the asset into clinical development. In the case of RLYB114, we intend to seek a collaboration with another company that specializes in ophthalmology drug development. However, we intend to conduct preclinical development activities for RLYB331 with the intent to move this program into clinical development.
Maximize the value of our collaborations with Exscientia and AbCellera. We have ongoing collaborations with Exscientia for the discovery and development of small molecule therapeutics and AbCellera for novel antibody-based therapeutics. Both collaborations focus on the development of new treatments for patients with rare metabolic diseases. Specifically, our initial work with Exscientia targets ENPP1 and we expect to report in vivo efficacy data in the second half of 2023 prior to the commencement of IND-enabling studies. Our collaboration with AbCellera is currently in the discovery stage. We intend to support both of these collaborations with a goal of moving multiple additional programs into clinical development over the next several years.
Expand our pipeline through partnering, acquiring or in-licensing additional product candidates that target validated biology. We are focused on developing drugs that directly impact known disease pathways which we believe will allow us to increase the probability of clinical, regulatory and commercial success. We continue to accelerate our business development activities and actively pursue the acquisition or in-licensing of additional product candidates as well as partnerships and collaborations. Our team has strong relationships with key academic and industry leaders in the rare disease field built from our past success in developing and commercializing therapies for rare diseases. We plan to continue to leverage our existing collaborations and relationships to further our business development opportunities and thereby expand our pipeline.
Maximize the value of pipeline product candidates through commercial independence in key markets and select partnerships. We plan to build a fully integrated and focused commercial organization to launch our rare therapeutics, if approved, in key markets. We believe our commercial organization can be efficiently targeted at groups of specialists who typically treat patients with the diseases to be addressed by our product candidates. For certain other markets, we plan to explore strategic partnerships to efficiently deliver our therapeutics to patients, with the goal of transforming patient care in our focus areas around the globe.

Our Company

We were founded in January 2018 by Drs. Mackay and Uden and Mr. Fryer to identify and accelerate the development of life-transforming therapies for patients with severe and rare disorders. At Alexion, Dr. Mackay was Global Head of Research & Development, Dr. Uden served as Head of Research, and Mr. Fryer was Chief Tax Officer. Many of our employees have worked together extensively during their careers across different companies. During these years of collaboration, several members of our team were integral in the successful development and/or approval of transformative therapies for thousands of patients with rare diseases. As a focused, cohesive and experienced Rallybio team, we hope to transform the lives of many thousands more.

In August 2021, we completed our initial public offering (“IPO”), pursuant to which we issued and sold 7,130,000 shares of our common stock, inclusive of 930,000 shares sold pursuant to the full exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares, at a public offering price of $13.00 per share. The gross proceeds from the IPO, including the exercise of the underwriter's option to purchase additional shares were $92.7 million and the net proceeds were approximately $83.0 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and other offering costs.

In November 2022, we completed a follow-on offering of approximately $54.8 million pursuant to which we issued 5,803,655 shares of common stock, inclusive of 803,654 shares of common stock sold pursuant to the partial exercise of the underwriters' option to purchase additional shares at a price of $6.00 per share, and to certain investors in lieu of common stock, pre-funded warrants to purchase up to an aggregate of 3,333,388 shares of common stock at a price of $5.9999, which represents the per share public offering price for the shares less $0.0001 per share. The net proceeds from the November 2022 follow-on offering were approximately $50.8 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and other offering costs.

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Our Product Candidates

RLYB212 for the prevention of FNAIT

We are developing RLYB212, an anti-HPA-1a antibody product candidate for the prevention of FNAIT, a maternal fetal blood disorder that can cause potentially devastating outcomes including miscarriage, neonatal death and severe life-long neurological disability of the newborn. RLYB212 is a monoclonal anti-HPA-1a antibody that we believe has the potential to prevent maternal alloimmunization and thereby the occurrence of FNAIT. We have received approval for two CTAs for RLYB212 in Germany. The first was for a Phase 1 first-in-human trial and the second is for a Phase 1b proof of concept trial.

We are also conducting an ongoing FNAIT natural history alloimmunization study. This prospective, non-interventional, multinational study is designed to determine the frequency of women at higher FNAIT risk among expectant mothers of different racial and ethnic characteristics, as well as the frequency of HPA-1a alloimmunization and pregnancy outcomes among these women. We expect that data from this study will be used to support future registration of RLYB212, by providing historical controlled data to support a single-arm Phase 2/3 registration trial design. An additional objective of the FNAIT natural history study is to operationalize de novo the laboratory test paradigm for FNAIT risk and generate FNAIT laboratory test performance data for future regulatory discussions.

Maternal fetal blood disorders

FNAIT is one of several devastating disorders that is caused by an immune incompatibility of a mother and fetus during pregnancy. One of the best-characterized prenatal immune incompatibility disorders is Rh disease. This condition arises when the mother is RhD negative and her fetus is RhD positive. RhD incompatibility may lead to destruction of red blood cells in the fetus and can result in severe outcomes including miscarriage or loss of a newborn. Rh disease is treated by giving at-risk expectant mothers low doses of antibodies to RhD. These antibodies remove fetal red blood cells that have crossed into the mother’s circulation, thereby preventing her from developing an immune response that could destroy the red blood cells in the fetus. Since the approval of the first Rho (D) Immune Globulin in 1968, known as RhoGAM, expectant mothers in many countries, including in North America and Europe, are routinely screened for their RhD status, and Rh disease is largely prevented in at-risk expectant mothers. We are pursuing a similar approach to preventing FNAIT.

FNAIT disease background

Like Rh disease, FNAIT is a disorder that occurs during pregnancy when an expectant mother’s immune system attacks a specific antigen on the platelets of her fetus, leading to their destruction. This results in an increased risk of bleeding in the fetus and newborn. In the majority of cases, the effects of FNAIT are mild; however, up to 20% of FNAIT cases experience intracranial hemorrhage ("ICH"), which can lead to devastating outcomes such as miscarriage, stillbirth, loss of the newborn and severe lifelong neurological disabilities in those babies that survive.

FNAIT is caused by a mismatch in the type of HPA-1 that is expressed by the expectant mother and the fetus. There are two predominant forms of HPA-1, known as HPA-1a and HPA-1b, which are expressed on the surface of platelets. These two alleles differ by a single amino acid. Individuals who are homozygous for HPA-1b, meaning that they have two copies of the HPA-1b allele and no copies of the HPA-1a allele, are also known as HPA-1a negative. Upon exposure to HPA-1a, these individuals can develop antibodies to that antigen in a process known as alloimmunization. In expectant mothers, alloimmunization can occur upon mixing of fetal blood with maternal blood. When alloimmunization occurs in an expectant mother, the anti-HPA-1a antibodies that develop in the mother can cross the placenta and destroy platelets in the fetus.

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Pathophysiology of FNAIT

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There are no approved therapies to treat or prevent FNAIT and, therefore, expectant mothers are not currently screened for FNAIT risk. Today, expectant mothers at risk of FNAIT are typically only identified following the delivery of an FNAIT affected child. These mothers may be treated during subsequent pregnancies with weekly administration of IVIG, along with the oral steroid immunosuppressant prednisone. While IVIG administration can potentially mitigate the detrimental effects of anti-HPA-1a antibodies, it does not prevent alloimmunization, is costly, time-intensive, difficult to tolerate and associated with significant treatment-related complications.

Babies with FNAIT are typically diagnosed at the time of delivery by the presence of low platelet counts identified during routine analysis, the presence of petechiae on the skin or due to the manifestations of severe complications such as ICH or gastrointestinal bleeding. Upon diagnosis, babies with FNAIT may receive platelet transfusions and may be admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. In severe cases, babies may suffer life-long neurological disability or may not survive.

We project that there may be over 22,000 pregnancies annually that are at high risk of FNAIT in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, other major European countries and Australia. These pregnancies represent expectant mothers who are HPA-1a negative, who are at high risk of alloimmunization and who are carrying an HPA-1a positive fetus.

While the frequency of HPA-1a negative status in non-Caucasian populations is not established, studies show that approximately 2% of the Caucasian population is HPA-1a negative. Based on this frequency and live birth rates of Caucasian women from 2018, we estimate that there are approximately 110,000 HPA-1a negative expectant mothers in the aforementioned countries each year. From this population of expectant mothers, a subset is at higher risk of FNAIT due to the presence of a specific HLA allele, known as DRB3*01:01. Genetic studies have found that expectant mothers who have this specific HLA allele are approximately 25 times more likely to develop antibodies to HPA-1a than those without this allele. This higher-risk group represents approximately 27% of HPA-1a negative expectant mothers, or approximately 30,000 individuals.

From this population, an estimated 89% of women would not already have antibodies to HPA-1a and, of these, an estimated 86% would be expected to be carrying an HPA-1a positive fetus. As illustrated below, based on these estimates, we project there may be over 22,000 pregnancies annually that are at high risk of FNAIT.

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Pregnancies At Risk of FNAIT

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*Source: NCHS National Vital Statistics Report Volume 68, Number 13, November 30, 2019, Births: Final Data for 2018; World Bank Population Data (2018); Kjeldsen-Kragh, et al Blood 2007; Hardy-Weinberg estimate; Kjeldsen-Kragh et al Blood 110, 833-839 (2007)

Given the well-established prevalence of HPA-1a negativity in the Caucasian population, our current estimates of the FNAIT at-risk population are derived from the estimated proportion of Caucasian births from approximately eight million live births per year in the above-mentioned countries. We are committed, however, to ensuring that all expectant mothers of any race or ethnicity who are at high risk of FNAIT are identified and eligible for treatment. To this end, we are conducting a FNAIT natural history study, in part to obtain better prevalence estimates of the FNAIT at-risk population in racial and ethnic groups that may have been underrepresented in previously published studies. We believe that data from this study will better inform the size of the total FNAIT at-risk population.

We believe that screening for FNAIT risk can be performed routinely and cost effectively as part of standard prenatal testing provided to expectant mothers during pregnancy. Testing for maternal HPA-1 type and presence of the HLA-DRB3*01:01 allele could occur during the first trimester, at the same time as other routine blood work and risk screening, and we don’t expect that an additional blood draw would be required. Importantly, U.S. and EU physicians have advised that our approach and timing for FNAIT screening would fit well within the established first trimester prenatal testing paradigm and could slot in at the same time as routine blood typing and Rh testing. Based on our global market research with maternal-fetal medicine specialists, obstetricians-gynecologists and payers, we believe there is not only high awareness of the catastrophic impact of FNAIT, but also a strong desire to both screen and provide preventive therapy to at-risk expectant mothers, if there were an approved product to prevent FNAIT and affordable screening tests.

We believe screening and preventive treatment can have a significant impact on this potentially devastating disease. For example, screening and treatment in Rh disease have been highly effective in reducing the number of affected births. In developed countries with access to prenatal testing and treatment, the prevalence of Rh disease is 2.5 per 100,000 compared to 276 per 100,000 worldwide. We believe that applying a similar approach to the prevention of FNAIT could lead to a significant reduction in the number of babies at risk for FNAIT.

We are working with a third party to include screening tests for maternal HPA-1 type, maternal HLA-DRB3*D1:01 status, maternal HPA-1a antibodies and fetal HPA-1 genotype in our FNAIT natural history trial.

Our solution: RLYB212

We are developing RLYB212, a monoclonal anti-HPA-1a antibody developed from transformed memory B-cells isolated from a mother who previously experienced severe FNAIT affected pregnancies. In the first quarter of 2023, we announced proof-of-concept in a Phase 1b study for RLYB212. Results showed that one week after a single subcutaneous dose, RLYB212 was able to rapidly and completely eliminate transfused, HPA-1a positive platelets in HPA-1a negative subjects. In the Phase 1b study, RLYB212 was observed to be well-tolerated with no serious adverse events reported. We believe that the broad range of PK and PD data in the Phase 1b study will allow for substantive modeling to inform dose selection for a future registrational study. Also, in the first quarter of 2023 we initiated the multi-dose cohort of our single-center Phase 1 trial in Europe. This portion of the Phase 1

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study will evaluate safety and PK of RLYB212 based on repeat dosing over 12 weeks in healthy male and female participants. We expect to report the results from this cohort of subjects in the fourth quarter of 2023.

We believe RLYB212 is a potential first-in-class product candidate for prevention of FNAIT based on:

Dose administration. RLYB212 is dosed subcutaneously which simplifies the treatment regimen for at-risk expectant mothers and is highly preferred by physicians in both the United States and EU, based on primary market research.
PK profile. Our PK modeling suggests that subcutaneous administration of RLYB212 could maximize the capacity of RLYB212 to neutralize fetal antigen over the course of treatment.
Standard manufacturing and stable supply. Commercial quantities of RLYB212 are expected to be produced by standard monoclonal antibody production methods.


RLYB211: Established Proof-of-Mechanism for an Anti-HPA-1a Antibody to Cause Rapid Platelet Elimination

RLYB211 is an intravenously administered polyclonal anti-HPA-1a antibody derived from the plasma of women who have developed antibodies to HPA-1a from a prior HPA-1 incompatible pregnancy. Data from our Phase 1/2 clinical trial for RLYB211, initially presented in July 2021 at the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (“ISTH”) Congress and subsequently published in the Journal of Thrombosis and Hemostasis (Geisen et al., 2022, In Press), demonstrate that RLYB211 rapidly and completely eliminates HPA-1a-positive platelets in HPA-1a negative subjects, establishing proof-of-mechanism for the ability of an anti-HPA-1a antibody to cause rapid platelet elimination. Our product candidate RLYB212 has the same mechanism of action as RLYB211 with the relative of benefits that RLYB212 has as a monoclonal antibody.

 

RLYB211 Led to Rapid Clearance of Transfused HPA-1a Positive (i.e., HPA-1ab) Platelets from Healthy Participants

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RLYB212 preclinical data

A mouse model of FNAIT has been created in which the amino acids comprising the HPA-1a antigen are reconstituted in the mouse gene. These transgenic mice (referred to as APLDQ mice based on the amino acid changes) recapitulate multiple aspects of FNAIT. Administration of anti-HPA-1a antibodies to APLDQ mice leads to destruction of APLDQ platelets and severe thrombocytopenia. Injection of platelets from APLDQ mice into wild-type mice can induce an HPA-1a specific immune response. Finally, wild-type female mice pre-immunized with APLDQ platelets, when bred with APLDQ male mice, give birth to severely thrombocytopenic pups, many of which exhibit an accompanying bleeding phenotype. Treatment of these pregnant female mice with IVIG resulted in lowering the level of anti-APLDQ antibodies in the fetus and a reduction in thrombocytopenia.

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In a prophylactic treatment model, a single large bolus intravenous injection of 1 x 108 APLDQ platelets (equivalent to about one-sixth of the total blood volume in the host) was administered to wild-type mice. At a dose of 0.4 µg (yielding a peak concentration of approximately 0.2 µg/ml), RLYB212 was able to drive rapid and complete elimination of APLDQ platelets, as shown in the first graph below, and prevent a host antibody response, as shown in the second graph below. As shown in third graph below, this dose correlates to a concentration of RLYB212 projected to bind approximately 10% of the HPA-1a antigen present on the transfused APLDQ platelets. Thus, the approximately 10% receptor binding is sufficient to clear platelets and prevent alloimmunization in the mouse model.

RLYB212 Induced Rapid Elimination of APLDQ Platelets

 

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RLYB212 Prevented the Development of Antibodies to APLDQ Platelets

 

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Clinical development of RLYB212

A Phase 1 single and multiple dose study of RLYB212 in HPA-1a negative healthy participants was initiated in the fourth quarter of 2021. This ongoing single-blind, placebo-controlled study is designed to evaluate the safety and

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PK of single and repeat doses of subcutaneously administered RLYB212. An overview of the study's design is illustrated below.

Design of the Ongoing Phase 1 PK and Safety Study of RLYB212 in HPA-1a Negative Healthy Participants

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The ongoing Phase 1b proof of concept study that was initiated in the second quarter of 2022 is designed to assess the ability of subcutaneously administered RLYB212 to rapidly eliminate transfused HPA-1a positive platelets from the circulation of HPA-1a negative healthy male participants. In the third quarter of 2022, we announced preliminary results from this study, demonstrating that one week after a single subcutaneous dose, RLYB212 rapidly and completely eliminated HPA-1a positive platelets with a greater than 90% reduction of the mean platelet elimination half-life compared to placebo in a challenge model of a catastrophic fetal maternal hemorrhage, consistent with our proof-of-concept criteria. We also announced that dosing had commenced under an amended protocol that expanded the dose range of RLYB212, thereby providing a broader range of PK and PD data.

Design of the Phase 1b Trial of RLYB212 in Healthy Male Participants

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In the first quarter of 2023, we announced proof-of-concept in the Phase 1b study for RLYB212. Results showed that one week after a single subcutaneous dose, RLYB212 was able to rapidly and completely eliminate transfused, HPA-1a positive platelets in HPA-1a negative subjects with additional findings from the study that show a reduction in mean platelet elimination half-life was greater than 90% in both RLYB212 dose groups compared to placebo and was dose related. We believe that the broad range of PK and PD data in the Phase 1b study will allow for substantive modeling to inform dose selection for a future registrational study. The Company expects to report the complete dataset from the Phase 1b study of RLYB212 at a scientific conference in 2023.

In the first quarter of 2023 we initiated the multi-dose cohort of our single-center Phase 1 trial in Europe. This portion of that study will evaluate safety and PK of RLYB212 based on repeat dosing over 12 weeks in healthy male and female participants. We expect to report results from this cohort of subjects in the fourth quarter of 2023.

Subject to future successful discussions with regulatory authorities, we plan to conduct a registrational enabling Phase 2/3 trial of RLYB212 in expectant mothers at higher FNAIT risk.

Prospective FNAIT Natural History Alloimmunization Study

We have a prospective, non-interventional, multinational natural history study ongoing. The primary objective of this ongoing study is to determine the frequency of women who are HPA-1a antibody negative and have the HLA

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allele DRB3*01:01, and are therefore at higher FNAIT risk among pregnant women of different racial and ethnic characteristics who present for prenatal care at gestation weeks 10 to 14. A secondary objective will be to identify the frequency of HPA-1a alloimmunization and pregnancy outcomes among women identified to be at higher FNAIT risk. We expect that the data from this study will contribute to a control dataset for a future, single-armed registration trial for RLYB212.

RLYB116 for the treatment of disorders due to complement dysregulation

RLYB116 is an inhibitor of complement component C5, a component of the complement pathway which plays a central role in innate immunity as well as shaping adaptive immune response. Dysregulation of the complement pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a growing number of diseases, making it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Antibody inhibitors of C5 have been successfully developed to treat diseases caused by immune dysfunction, including PNH, aHUS, refractory gMG and relapsing NMOSD. Despite approved products for these indications, we believe there remains an unmet need in patients with these diseases for therapies that are more patient-friendly and accessible. RLYB116 is an Affibody molecule, which is an antibody mimetic protein that has a much smaller molecular weight than a traditional antibody and may also be easier and less costly to produce. In contrast to C5-targeted antibody therapeutics that are administered intravenously, RLYB116 has the potential to be administered as a small volume subcutaneous injection. RLYB116 also includes an albumin binding domain, which may extend the half-life of the Affibody domain. In addition, amino acid changes have been made to RLYB116 that are intended to enhance its stability. We view RLYB116 as a potential pipeline-in-a-product with disease areas under consideration including PNH, gMG and severe dermatologic indications. However, we plan to evaluate the development of RLYB116 for the treatment of additional rare complement-mediated diseases. We believe RLYB116 could potentially enable more patients suffering from PNH and gMG to be treated globally and could also provide a meaningful therapeutic impact for patients suffering from a broad number of other diseases of complement dysregulation.

Based on our team’s experience studying and developing therapies targeting the complement system, we believe there are four important attributes that could support clinical and commercial success in the treatment of patients suffering from complement-mediated diseases. These include a mechanism of action targeting terminal complement, the ability to produce rapid, complete and sustained inhibition of C5, a safety profile consistent with C5 antibodies currently approved for therapeutic use and pricing flexibility to treat a broad range of complement-mediated diseases. We believe RLYB116 has the potential to demonstrate these attributes, and if so, could have a life-transforming impact on patients.

The complement system

The complement system includes over 30 proteins in plasma and on cell surfaces that support the body’s adaptive or antibody-based immune system in the destruction of pathogenic bacteria. Complement proteins circulate in the blood in an inactive form prior to activation in response to infection. Activation occurs through a pathway of proteolytic cleavage events initiated by pathogen recognition and resulting in pathogen destruction. Three complement pathways that converge on C5 are known and are referred to as the classical, lectin and alternative pathways that converge on C5. In the classical pathway, antibodies bind to antigens, which in turn trigger a protease cascade that activates complement protein C3 and then complement protein C5. Activation of C5 convertase generates C5b which can initiate formation of membrane pores and subsequent lysis of cells. The binding of C5b to host cells is normally prevented by the presence of specific glycoproteins on the cell surface.

PNH disease background

PNH is a rare, potentially life-threatening hematologic disease characterized by complement-mediated destruction of red blood cells, or hemolysis. In patients with PNH, blood precursor cells acquire a mutation in a gene encoding a protein that anchors a specific set of proteins on the cell surface. When these proteins, known as glycoproteins, are in place on the blood precursor cells, then the cells are protected from immune attack. However, in patients with PNH, these mutations cause the absence of these glycoproteins and renders red blood cells susceptible to destruction by the complement pathway. Once the cells are destroyed, by a mechanism known as lysis, the hemoglobin from these cells is then removed from circulation by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. Excess hemoglobin and additional proteins from lysed red blood cells cause the kidney damage seen in most patients with PNH. The observed increase in the rate of thrombosis in PNH patients is believed to be related to altered platelet function as well as to other activities associated with the C5a protein, such as vasoconstriction and increases in inflammation.

Early signs of PNH include hemoglobinuria, or dark colored urine, resulting from excretion of hemoglobin from lysed red blood cells, which is more prominent in the morning and decreases during the day. More serious symptoms of PNH include anemia, excessive weakness, fatigue, severe abdominal pain, severe headaches and

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recurrent infections. PNH leads to over a 60-fold increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism compared to the general population and these thrombotic events lead to between 40% and 67% of deaths in PNH patients. Approximately two thirds of patients with PNH develop chronic kidney disease ("CKD"), and kidney failure is the cause of death in 8% to 18% of patients with PNH. In the absence of disease-modifying treatment, PNH results in the death of approximately 35% of affected individuals within five years of diagnosis. The prevalence of PNH has been estimated to be approximately 12-13 people per million.

Current treatments for PNH and their limitations

The only curative treatment currently available for PNH is a stem cell transplant from a related donor. However, this procedure is associated with significant risk and is typically used only in those patients with severe disease, such as life-threatening thrombosis or dangerously low blood counts. Various supportive therapies include anticoagulants, red blood cell transfusions and supplements of iron and folate. These therapies provide some relief from symptoms but do not address the underlying cause of the disease.

There are two approved disease-modifying drugs for PNH: eculizumab, marketed by AstraZeneca as Soliris; and ravulizumab, marketed by AstraZeneca as Ultomiris. Both of these products are antibodies that bind to complement C5 and prevent its cleavage by C5 convertase to C5a and C5b, thus blocking a central step in the complement pathway. Both products are roughly equivalent in their ability to block C5 cleavage, prevent hemolysis, minimize the need for transfusions and stabilize hemoglobin.

Eculizumab and ravulizumab are each administered intravenously by healthcare professionals: eculizumab at biweekly intervals and ravulizumab at eight-week intervals. Ravulizumab can also be delivered subcutaneously. Despite the requirement for intravenous administration and limitations on access, wide adoption of these drugs has led to worldwide sales of eculizumab and ravulizumab which in 2022 exceeded $5 billion. We believe that a product that works through a similar mechanism but with a low-volume, more convenient route of administration and improved patient access has the opportunity to further transform PNH therapy for patients.

Potential benefits of our approach

We are pursuing PNH as part of our initial development strategy for three reasons. First, PNH has a well-understood disease pathophysiology driven by complement, providing a sound biological rationale for a C5-targeted intervention. Second, PNH offers the opportunity for early clinical validation using objective endpoints, including impact on lactate dehydrogenase, a component of red blood cells that is increased in circulation as a result of hemolysis. And third – and most importantly – we believe that with a patient-friendly and accessible therapy, RLYB116 could potentially provide transformative therapeutic impact for unserved and underserved patients with PNH globally.

gMG disease background

gMG is a potentially life-threatening, rare autoimmune neuromuscular disorder. Patients with gMG develop antibodies that attack critical signaling proteins at the junction between nerve and muscle cells, thereby inhibiting the ability of nerves to communicate properly with muscles. This inhibition leads to muscle weakness, which can occur in ocular muscles leading to droopy eyelids as well as blurred or double vision due to partial paralysis of eye movements and in the muscles in the face, neck, throat and jaw, causing problems in chewing and swallowing. gMG can also cause respiratory problems, speech difficulties and weakness in skeletal muscles leading to problems in limb function. The symptoms of the disease can be transient and can remit spontaneously in the early stages of the disease. However, as the disease progresses, symptom-free periods become less frequent and disease exacerbations can last for months. Up to 20% of gMG patients experience respiratory crisis at least once in their lives. During such a crisis, a decline in respiratory function can become life-threatening and often requires intubation and mechanical ventilation, and hospital stays for patients in crisis last a median of seventeen days. According to a comprehensive epidemiological study of gMG in western Denmark form 1975-89, from the time of diagnosis, the overall survival rates at 3, 5, 10 and 20 years are estimated to be 85%, 81%, 69% and 63%, respectively. In addition, patients with gMG suffer from poor quality of life due to the impact of their disease on physical function as well as the burden of treatment-related adverse events.

The most common proteins that have been targeted by these autoimmune antibodies are AchR, which are within the neuromuscular junction and bind to the acetylcholine neurotransmitter released by the nerve; and muscle-specific kinase ("MuSK") a tyrosine kinase involved in propagating neuronal signals. The presence of these autoimmune antibodies blocks the signaling from neurons to muscles which results in outward signs of muscle weakness.

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The pathology in gMG arises not only from interrupting signal transduction, but from physical destruction of the post-synaptic membrane through activation of the complement pathway. Over 80% of patients with gMG have antibodies to AchR and these antibodies can lead to complement-driven lysis of the post-synaptic membrane. Eculizumab is approved for the treatment of AchR antibody-positive gMG based on its ability to lead to significant improvements in the Myasthenia Gravis-Specific Activities of Daily Living scale and the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis score which measures muscle weakness.

The prevalence of gMG has been estimated to be at least 100 people per million. As with many autoimmune diseases, there are no known genetic alterations that specifically cause gMG. In most patients, the disorder arises spontaneously. Approximately 3% of patients have a primary relative with gMG, suggesting that there are genetic factors that may predispose development of the disease, but these genes have yet to be identified.

Current treatments for gMG and their limitations

In the first-line setting, patients presenting with symptomatic gMG are commonly treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as pyridostigmine in order to improve neuromuscular transmission. As the disease progresses, patients may receive immunosuppressive therapies such as azathioprine, glucocorticoids, mycophenolate and cyclosporine. These therapies are used off-label for patients with gMG and unfortunately, each of these can be associated with substantive treatment burden and in some cases, can lead to a worsening of the disease. Soliris (eculizumab) has been approved in the United States, EU, Japan and other markets for the treatment of patients with refractory gMG who are anti-AChR positive. Substantive symptom improvements have been noted with eculizimab treatment at the first assessment at one week after first dose administration. Rituximab may also be used off-label and is believed to have more benefit in patients with gMG with anti-MuSK antibodies compared to those with anti-AChR antibodies.

For patients with severe gMG or recurrent exacerbation and crisis, there are a number of methods utilized to reduce circulating IgG antibodies, as published studies have shown that decreases in circulating IgG antibody levels are correlated with increased relief of symptoms and decreases in the length of hospital stays. These procedures include: plasma exchange, a process whereby blood is taken from a patient and IgG antibodies are physically removed from the plasma before it is returned to the patient; and administration of IVIG, which provides therapeutic benefit through multiple hypothesized mechanisms, including the saturation of the FcRn receptor, which may lead to increased degradation of the endogenous autoimmune antibodies. Both procedures are burdensome for patients and repeat administration is usually required to obtain significant reduction in symptoms. In addition, the large volumes of intravenous fluid associated with the administration of IVIG can lead to pulmonary edema and kidney complications in elderly patients.

Potential benefits of our approach

We are pursuing gMG as part of our initial development strategy for two reasons. First, complement overactivity is known to contribute to the disease pathophysiology of gMG, again providing a sound biological rationale for a C5-targeted intervention. Second – and most importantly – we believe there is significant unmet need that we can address. We believe the convenience of subcutaneous self-administration may enable treatment of a broad population of gMG patients at both earlier and late stages of disease.

Our solution: RLYB116

RLYB116 is an engineered protein that includes an Affibody molecule and an albumin binding domain. We acquired rights to RLYB116 from Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB (Publ) ("Sobi"). RLYB116 has been designed to be optimized for C5 binding, stability, and long half-life in serum. Potential benefits of RLYB116 include:

Subcutaneous administration. The low molecular weight allows for a higher concentration of active molecules than antibodies in an equivalent volume. This increases the probability of being able to deliver RLYB116 in a volume suitable for subcutaneous administration.
Efficiency of manufacturing. RLYB116 is expressed in E coli, providing for a more streamlined manufacturing process compared to antibodies or other biologics expressed in mammalian cell culture, which typically require larger scale and longer manufacturing times.
Less frequent dosing. Linkage of the Affibody domain to an albumin binding domain may lengthen the dosing interval of RLYB116 by extending the biological half-life.
Broader indication opportunity. Linkage to an albumin binding domain may also improve distribution to tissues throughout the body creating the potential for additional tissue targets and indications.
Potentially lower risk of treatment conversion. Due to 1:1 binding to C5, there is an expected lack of risk for drug-target-drug complex formation when switching from treatment with an antibody.
Favorable stability. The Affibody platform provides the possibility of delivering highly stable and soluble therapeutic agents that allow for high-concentration low-volume products.

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Affibody Scaffold and RLYB116 Structure

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PD properties of RLYB116

An ex vivo hemolytic inhibition assay suggests that RLYB116 may inhibit C5-mediated red blood cell destruction at a dose that could be clinically useful.

Clinical development of RLYB116

We received approval in the fourth quarter of 2021 for a HREC submission to support the initiation of a RLYB116 Phase 1 trial in healthy participants and in the first quarter of 2022 we initiated the Phase 1 trial in Australia. This trial is designed to evaluate the safety, tolerability and PK of RLYB116 following subcutaneous administration of a single dose and multiple doses. We also plan to incorporate a measure of PD activity into the single and multiple ascending dose segments of the trial. There are 40 participants in the single ascending dose segment with evaluations at 5 dose levels. We plan to enroll up to 84 participants with up to 7 dosing strategies in the multiple ascending dose segment of the trial. We are also planning to conduct a future trial in patients with PNH to assess the effect of RLYB116 on measures of PK and PD activity as well as safety and tolerability.

Design of the Initial Phase 1 Single Ascending Dose Trial of RLYB116 in Healthy Participants
 

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In November 2022, we announced positive topline results from our Phase 1 single ascending dose study of RLYB116. These preliminary data showed that all study participants that were administered a single 1 mL subcutaneous injection of 100 mg of RLYB116 (n=6) demonstrated a reduction in free C5 greater than 99% within 24 hours of dosing. The terminal elimination half-life of RLYB116 was greater than 300 hours. Subcutaneously administered RLYB116 was observed to be generally well-tolerated at the 100 mg dose, with mild adverse events and no drug-related serious adverse events reported.

The single ascending dose phase of the study included 2, 10, 30, 100, and 300 mg subcutaneous doses, which enabled an evaluation of a maximum tolerated dose. Mild to moderate adverse events were observed with no serious adverse events or severe adverse events. Concentrations of RLYB116 were consistent with the increase in dose. Free C5 concentration reductions greater than 99% within 24 hours were demonstrated with both 100 mg and 300 mg doses. Based on the data from the 100mg dose and the volume of administration of the 300 mg

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dose, the Company intends to move forward with the 100mg dose as a starting point for the evaluation of multiple dose administration of RLYB116.

In the fourth quarter of 2022, we initiated dosing in the first multiple ascending dose cohort of a Phase 1 study of RLYB116. The single-blind, dose escalation, placebo-controlled study is designed to evaluate the safety, PK, and PD of RLYB116 in healthy participants. We expect to report initial data in the fourth quarter of 2023.

We anticipate conducting subsequent trials in patients with PNH and gMG, which are both indications in which C5 inhibition has been clinically validated. Beyond these initial indications, we plan to evaluate the development of RLYB116 for the treatment of additional rare complement-mediated diseases, including severe dermatologic indications, given the growing numbers of diseases understood to be mediated by complement dysregulation.

RLYB114 for the treatment of ophthalmic disorders

RLYB114 is a C5-targeted Affibody molecule conjugated to polyethylene glycol ("PEG"). The addition of PEG to protein therapeutics is a well-established method of extending the half-life and reducing the immunogenicity of molecules in the body. Given the role of the complement system in retinal and ocular pathology, we are exploring a range of ophthalmic diseases, including inflammatory and degenerative disorders, for the development of RLYB114.

Potential role of complement in ocular diseases

Dysregulation of the complement system may drive ocular inflammation and contribute to vision loss in multiple diseases such as age-related macular degeneration ("AMD"). A number of genetic studies have shown links between alterations in genes encoding various complement factors and the risk of development of AMD. Several clinical trials of inhibitors of the complement pathway including C5 inhibitors have been conducted, with reports of modest efficacy. Reasons for this limited efficacy are unknown but could include the disease stage, level of intervention in the complement pathway, drug delivery mechanism and the ability of the therapeutic to cross Bruch’s membrane and the retinal pigment epithelium.

Preclinical studies

Based on a non-clinical intravitreal PK study, RLYB114 may have a half-life comparable to Eylea. RLYB114 was also well tolerated in this study with no major signs of ocular toxicities.

Our solution: RLYB114

We continue to advance the preclinical development of RLYB114, formulated for intravitreal injection, for the treatment of ophthalmic disorders with a goal to partner this program with a company that specializes in ophthalmology drug development.

RLYB331 for the treatment of severe anemia with ineffective erythropoiesis and iron overload
In May 2022, we obtained worldwide exclusive rights to RLYB331, a preclinical antibody. We believe RLYB331 has the potential to address a significant unmet need for patients with severe anemias with ineffective erythropoiesis and iron overload, including beta thalassemia and a subset of lower risk myelodysplastic syndromes.

Currently these patients are underserved by the existing standard of care. RLYB331 is a monoclonal antibody that is designed to inhibit MTP-2. The inhibition of MTP-2 significantly increases levels of hepcidin, decreases iron load and treats ineffective erythropoiesis. We continue to conduct investigational new drug (IND)-enabling activities for RLYB331, to support the transition of this asset into clinical development.

AI drug discovery collaboration with Exscientia

We established a partnership with Exscientia, an AI and machine learning drug discovery company. Exscientia has built dedicated AI systems that learn from a wide range of data and apply enhanced knowledge through iterations of design. Our partnership currently consists of a joint venture that focuses on the discovery and development of small molecules for the treatment of patients with rare metabolic diseases. We are initially targeting ENPP1, an enzyme involved in regulating extracellular levels of pyrophosphate, a natural inhibitor of calcium mineralization in bone formation, for the treatment of patients with HPP.

RE Ventures I, LLC : ENPP1 inhibitor program for the treatment of patients with HPP

We are developing an ENPP1 inhibitor for the treatment of patients with HPP, a rare, potentially life-threatening genetic disease characterized by mutations in the ALPL gene. These mutations lead to diminished activity of the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase ("TNSALP") enzyme and the accumulation of PPi, which inhibits bone mineralization causing multiple skeletal pathologies. ENPP1 is a Type II transmembrane glycoprotein that cleaves

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ATP, producing PPi, and is a major source of PPi production in cells. We believe that controlling inhibition of ENPP1 may reduce PPi levels and restore balance within the bone mineralization process.

HPP disease overview

HPP is an inherited disorder that affects the development of bones and teeth. More than 300 mutations in the ALPL gene associated with HPP have been identified. These mutations are associated with a wide range of disease severity. The most severe forms of the disorder tend to occur before birth and in early infancy. Infants afflicted with the disorder have short limbs, an abnormally shaped chest, soft skull bones, poor feeding, failure to gain weight, respiratory complications and high levels of calcium in the blood, or hypercalcemia, which can lead to life-threatening complications. In other cases, the disease is not recognized until later in childhood where it manifests as rickets, pain, decreased mobility, deficits of growth and fractures. Children with less severe HPP can experience early loss of primary teeth and may have short stature with bowed legs or knock knees, enlarged wrist and ankle joints and an abnormal skull shape. Findings in adults include a softening of the bones, known as osteomalacia, and recurrent fractures in the foot and thigh bones that can lead to chronic pain. The incidence of HPP has been reported to be 1 in 100,000 (United States and Canada) to 1 in 300,000 (EU) for severe disease and 1 in 6,370 (EU) for less severe forms.

The various manifestations of HPP are caused by the combination of a lack of phosphate and an excess of PPi due to a deficiency of TNSALP, the enzyme that converts PPi to phosphate. This deficiency negatively impacts bone formation by reducing the hydrolysis of PPi to phosphate required for normal bone formation, resulting in a build-up of PPi, a potent inhibitor of mineralization.

Strensiq, an enzyme replacement therapy marketed by AstraZeneca, is the only approved therapy to treat patients with perinatal-, infantile- and juvenile-onset HPP. The therapy has been shown to lead to significant improvements in morbidity and mortality in patients with perinatal- and infantile-onset HPP, and improvements in morbidity for patients with juvenile-onset HPP. However, Strensiq has limitations, including its dosing regimen and patient access. Strensiq is administered by subcutaneous injection either three or six times per week using a weight-based dosing scale, which can be both onerous and painful for patients. Furthermore, a population of adult patients may have difficulty accessing the therapy given reimbursement dynamics in countries around the world as a result of weight-based dosing that drives high costs for heavier patients.

Our solution: an ENPP1 small molecule inhibitor

We are developing an orally available, small molecule ENPP1 inhibitor designed to reduce PPi levels through the controlled inhibition of ENPP1, which we hypothesize may restore the balance of PPi and phosphate needed to promote bone mineralization. This program is in its early stages and preclinical and clinical development is required. If an ENPP1 inhibitor is successfully advanced through clinical development and obtains marketing approval, we believe that an oral small molecule ENPP1 inhibitor, administered as a stand-alone therapy or in combination with Strensiq, could have significant benefit in managing HPP and improving the lives of patients.

 

Lead molecules demonstrated encouraging activity in functional assays. In vivo efficacy data in our ENPP1 program is expected in the second half of 2023. Following those results, we and Exscientia expect to commence IND-enabling studies.

Scientific Rational: ENPP1 Inhibition for the Treatment of Hypophosphatasia

 

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Under normal conditions, the level of PPi and Pi is kept in balance by activity of TNSALP, ENPP1 and ANKH.

 

 

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In patients with HPP, the reduction of PPi hydrolysis by TNSALP results in a relative increase in PPi, leading to an inhibition of mineralization, and inhibited hydroxyapatite formation.

 

 

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Through controlled inhibition of ENPP1, we aim to reduce PPi and improve mineralization, restoring hydroxyapatite formation.

AbCellera Collaboration
We entered into a strategic alliance with AbCellera to discover, develop, and commercialize novel antibody-based therapeutics for rare diseases. This multi-year, multi-target collaboration will combine AbCellera’s antibody discovery engine with Rallybio’s clinical and commercial expertise in rare diseases to identify optimal clinical candidates with a goal of delivering therapies to patients. Under the terms of the agreement, AbCellera and Rallybio will co-develop up to five rare disease therapeutic targets, which will be chosen together by both companies. The partnership’s first program will focus on addressing the significant unmet therapeutic needs of patients with rare metabolic diseases.

Competition

The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are highly competitive and subject to significant and rapid technological change. There are many public and private biopharmaceutical companies, universities, government agencies and other research organizations actively engaged in the research and development of products that may be like our product candidates or address similar markets. In addition, the number of companies seeking to develop and commercialize products and therapies competing with our product candidates is likely to increase. However, we seek to build our portfolio with key differentiating attributes to provide a competitive advantage in the markets we target. The success of our product candidates, if approved, is likely to be a result of their efficacy, safety, convenience, price, the level of biosimilar or generic competition and/or the availability of reimbursement from government and other third-party payors.

FNAIT. There are currently no approved therapies for the prevention or treatment of FNAIT. In one frequently used approach to manage pregnancies where the mother is known to have a history of FNAIT, physicians administer high levels of IVIG. Companies that currently market IVIG include ADMA Biologics, Bio Products Laboratory, CSL Behring, Grifols, Kedrion Biopharma, Leadiant Biosciences, Octapharma and Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited.

PNH. The only curative treatment currently available for PNH is a stem cell transplant from a related donor. However, this procedure is associated with significant risk and is used only in those patients with severe disease, such as life-threatening thrombosis or dangerously low blood counts. Various supportive therapies include anticoagulants, red blood cell transfusions and iron and folate supplements. These therapies provide some relief from symptoms but do not address the underlying cause of the disease. There are three approved drugs for PNH: eculizumab, marketed by AstraZeneca as Soliris; ravulizumab, marketed by AstraZeneca as Ultomiris, and pegcetacoplan, marketed by Apellis Pharmaceuticals as Empaveli. Eculizumab and ravulizumab are antibodies that bind complement C5 and pegcetacoplan is a pegylated pentadecapeptide that targets complement C3. There

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are several companies in mid- to late-stage clinical trials developing treatments for PNH. These include Akari Therapeutics, Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Novartis, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Roche.

MG. Very early-stage MG is symptomatically treated by the use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as pyridostigmine bromide, marketed as Mestinon by Bausch Health. Eculizumab is also approved for the treatment of generalized MG in patients who are positive for anti-AChR antibodies. Efgartigimod, marketed as Vyvgart by Argenx SE, is a neonatal Fc receptor blocker also approved for the treatment of patients with generalized MG who are positive for anti-AChR antibodies. There are several other companies developing assets in mid- to late-stage clinical development for the treatment of MG using a variety of approaches and modalities. These companies include AstraZeneca, Catalyst Pharmaceuticals, CureVac, Horizon Therapeutics, Immunovant, Inc. and UCB Biopharma.

HPP. There is one approved treatment for HPP, asfotase alfa, marketed by AstraZeneca as Strensiq, which is an alkaline phosphotase enzyme replacement therapy, and the only approved therapy for the treatment of perinatal-, infantile- and juvenile-onset HPP. AstraZeneca is developing a second generation enzyme replacement therapy, ALXN-1850 which is currently in clinical development, and Aruvant is developing ARU-2801, an AAV gene therapy currently in preclinical development. There are several companies pursuing ENPP1 small molecule inhibitors for the treatment of cancer, including Angarus Therapeutics, Avammune Therapeutics, Tcino Bioscience, Zenshine Pharmaceuticals and Stingray Therapeutics with all these companies in discovery or preclinical development. We are not aware of other small molecule inhibitors in development for the treatment of patients with HPP.

Many of our competitors may have significantly greater name recognition and financial, manufacturing, marketing, product development, technical, commercial infrastructure, and human resources than we do. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology and diagnostic industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. These competitors also compete with us in establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies.

Intellectual Property

Our success depends, in part, on our ability to obtain, maintain, defend, and enforce patent rights and other intellectual property rights that protect our business, preserve the confidentiality of our trade secrets, and operate without infringing the valid and enforceable intellectual property rights of others. In addition to our efforts to protect our product candidates and methods of using them, we also seek to secure or acquire patent rights regarding other products and methods that are important to the general development of commercial products. We utilize a multi-layered approach that includes acquiring intellectual property rights through purchase or exclusive license, filing and prosecuting U.S. and foreign patent applications directed to our own innovations, and developing and protecting proprietary know-how to maintain our competitive position.

Our ongoing efforts to secure patent rights that protect our business constitute a key component of our business strategy. We also strive to protect as trade secrets or confidential know-how, certain aspects of our programs and technological innovations that are commercially valuable but are not amenable to or appropriate for patent protection. We achieve this, in part, through the use of confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, scientific advisors, collaborators, licensors, and contractors, and by striving to maintain physical security of our premises and digital security of our electronic information and technology systems.

Notwithstanding our commitment to protecting our intellectual property rights, we, like other pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies, are subject to several sources of uncertainty that can affect those rights. For example, we cannot be certain that any patents that we currently own or in-license, or that we may own or in-license in the future, will not be challenged, held to be invalid and/or unenforceable, have the scope of their claims narrowed, or be circumvented by others. Nor can we be certain that such patents will successfully protect our products or our business from competition.

Similarly, with respect to patent applications that are currently pending, or that may be pending in the future, we cannot be certain that such patent applications will result in the issuance of granted patents, or of patent claims with the desired claim scope. In order to secure an issued patent, an invention claimed in a patent application must meet certain legal requirements for patentability, which differ between countries based on each country’s particular patent laws.

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In addition, because of the significant amount of time required for clinical development and regulatory review of product candidates, we cannot be certain that any of our product candidates will be commercialized while there is significant patent term remaining on patents relating to those products. The term of a patent depends upon the legal requirements for determination of patent term in the country in which that patent is granted. In most countries, including the United States, the patent term is 20 years from the earliest claimed filing date of a non-provisional patent application. In the United States, a patent’s term may, in certain cases, be lengthened by patent term adjustment ("PTA") which compensates a patentee for administrative delays by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office ("USPTO") in examining and granting the patent. Likewise, a patent’s term may be shortened if it is terminally disclaimed over an earlier-expiring patent with a common owner or inventor.

The term of a U.S. patent relating to an approved drug product may also be extended to compensate the patentee for delays due to the regulatory approval process. Such a patent term extension ("PTE") cannot exceed five years, and cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval. Furthermore, the term can be extended for only one patent applicable to each regulatory review period and only those claims covering the approved product, or a method for using it or manufacturing it, may be extended. In the future, if any of our product candidates receive approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the "FDA") we expect to apply for PTE on any issued patents covering those products, depending upon the length of the clinical studies for each product and other factors. There can be no assurance that we will benefit from any PTE or favorable adjustments to the terms of any patents we currently own or in-license or that we may own or in-license in the future.

In addition to and separate from patent exclusivity, the FDA may also grant marketing exclusivity of varying lengths in connection with the approval of a New Chemical Entity (5 years), Biologic (12 years), or Orphan Drug indication (7 years). Marketing exclusivity may also be granted for new clinical studies (3 years) and pediatric studies (6 months) on approved drugs. Depending on the length of the regulatory approval process and the ability to make use of the procedures for obtaining PTE, any FDA exclusivity period may in part or in whole overlap with any patent exclusivity to which we are entitled. We intend to pursue relevant marketing exclusivities in the US and in foreign countries in which any candidate product is approved. However, we cannot be certain that any such exclusivities will be granted or, if granted, will insulate our commercial product(s) from competition.

With respect to trade secrets, while we have confidence in the protective measures that we employ, such measures can be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for any such breach. We also cannot be certain that any of our activities will not be subject to the intellectual property rights of others.

As of March 1, 2023, we owned two patent families that were acquired from Prophylix and relate to the current product candidates in our FNAIT prevention program, RLYB211 and RLYB212. The acquired patent family covering RLYB212 and its use in treating and preventing FNAIT includes patents issued in Australia, Europe, Mexico, Russia and the United States. Patent applications in this family are pending in Brazil, Canada, Israel, New Zealand and the United States. The granted patents in this family will expire in 2035, excluding any PTA or PTE that may be awarded. The acquired patent family covering administration of RLYB211 for the prophylactic treatment of FNAIT includes patents issued in the United States, Europe and Canada. The foreign patents and one of the U.S. patents will expire at the end of 2026, while the other U.S. patent expires in November 2030 due to a PTA granted by the USPTO. In addition, we filed and own three pending International (PCT) patent applications directed to dosing and administration of RLYB211 and RLYB212, one pending International (PCT) patent application directed to assays for quantifying anti-HPA1a antibodies, and one pending United States provisional patent application directed to the formulation of RLYB212. We also exclusively in-license certain rights to technology from Versiti Blood Research Institute Foundation, Inc. pertaining to a mouse model of FNAIT.

As of March 1, 2023, we owned two patent families relating to the current product candidates in our complement program, RLYB114 and RLYB116, and certain aspects of their use that were acquired from Sobi. These two patent families currently include three granted U.S. patents and one pending U.S. patent application, with granted patents and/or pending patent applications in more than 25 additional countries worldwide, including granted patents in Australia, Canada, Europe (all European Patent Convention contracting states) and Japan. In the United States, Australia, the European Patent Convention contracting states and Japan, applications in both patent families have been granted and are scheduled to expire between 2033 and 2034, excluding any PTA or PTE. In Canada, currently one patent family has been granted and is scheduled to expire in 2033. The second family patents are pending in Canada. In addition, we filed and own a pending International (PCT) patent application directed to dosing and administration of RLYB116. We have also non-exclusively in-licensed certain patent rights relating to our current product candidates from Affibody, including patent rights relating to the Affibody molecule technology and Albumod albumin binding molecule technology.

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As of March 1, 2023, we exclusively in-licensed from Kymab Limited certain patent rights to the current product candidate in our iron overload program, RLYB331, as well as back-up compounds. Under the exclusive license, we are managing prosecution of a patent family relating to RLYB331 and the back-up compounds. The patent family currently includes pending patent applications in the United States and in more than 20 other countries/regions, including Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Eurasia, Europe, India, Japan, Mexico, and Saudi Arabia. In addition, we have non-exclusively in-licensed from Kymab Limited certain patent rights relating to the development, manufacture, and use of RLYB331 and the back-up compounds.

License Agreements

Product License Agreement with Affibody AB

In March 2019, our subsidiary IPC Research, LLC ("IPC Research") and Sobi entered into a Contract Assignment Agreement pursuant to which Sobi assigned to, and IPC Research assumed, all obligations in a certain Product License Agreement ("PLA") as amended, between Sobi and Affibody AB ("Affibody"), dated March 9, 2012, as amended on January 1, 2018 and December 22, 2020.

Pursuant to the PLA, we obtained a license to the Affibody platform technology and a particular albumin binding domain ("ABD"), in order to further develop and commercialize certain Affibody ligands, which we are now developing as RLYB116 and RLYB114.

Under the PLA, Affibody grants us (a) a non-exclusive right under certain patents to use the Affibody ligands alone or as a fusion protein and (b) an exclusive right to use the Affibody ligands alone or as a fusion protein, in each case, for human therapeutic use. Affibody also grants us (a) a non-exclusive right under certain patents to use the ABD in combination with the Affibody ligands as a fusion protein and (b) an exclusive right to use the ABD solely in combination with the Affibody ligands as a fusion protein, in each case, for human therapeutic use. Affibody grants us a non-exclusive license under applicable know-how needed to practice the rights and licenses granted under the PLA. All licenses to us are sublicensable, provided that each sublicense is consistent with the terms and conditions of the PLA. Under the PLA, Affibody has an exclusive right under any product patents, which are a category of certain patents that we own, to use the specific Affibody ligands outside of human therapeutics and a non-exclusive right under know-how needed to practice the Affibody ligands outside of human therapeutics.

Under the PLA, Affibody is the exclusive owner of, and controls prosecution, maintenance, and defense of intellectual property covering, platform technology. We are the exclusive owner of, and control prosecution, maintenance, and defense of intellectual property covering, product technology. Affibody agrees to disclose to us any improvement to the Affibody technology that it deems commercially reasonable for us to practice and grants us an option to license any such improvement. We have the first right to enforce product patents against a third-party infringer and Affibody retains the first right to enforce any other licensed patent. We agree to not provide or make available any Affibody Ligand to a third-party on a standalone basis except for research purposes or to commercialize a licensed product.

We agree to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop and commercialize a licensed product. We also will pay Affibody certain regulatory milestones up to an aggregate amount of €7.5 million and (a) a mid-single-digit royalty on annual net sales of products if such products are covered by a valid claim of a product patent or a platform patent or (b) low-single-digit royalties on annual net sales of products that are not covered by any such valid claim. Our obligation to pay royalties expires on a country-by-country and product-by-product basis on the later of (a) the expiration of the last-to-expire valid claim of a patent covering a licensed product or (b) the 10th anniversary following first commercial sale of such product in such country.

The PLA will terminate when we are no longer obligated to pay royalties to Affibody. Either party may terminate the PLA upon material breach of the PLA by the other, subject to a cure period, or immediately in the case of the other party’s insolvency, bankruptcy or a similar event. Affibody may terminate the PLA immediately if we or any of our affiliates or third party transferees commences any proceeding challenging the validity of the licensed patents or any of Affibody’s other patents or challenging the confidentiality or substance of the licensed know-how or licensed technology. We may terminate the PLA for convenience upon 90 days prior written notice and upon payment of any amounts due to Affibody through the effective date of such termination.

If Affibody terminates the PLA or if we terminate the PLA for convenience, (a) all rights and licenses granted under the PLA will terminate, (b) at Affibody’s request, we must transfer all rights to the product technology free of charge to Affibody and (c) we must return or destroy all of Affibody’s confidential information. Furthermore, if we terminate for convenience, we must grant Affibody an exclusive, royalty free perpetual right to use all regulatory

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filings, approvals and data provided to regulatory authorities in support of such filings or approvals that relate to the licensed product. However, if we terminate the PLA as a result of Affibody’s material breach of the PLA or its insolvency or bankruptcy, we will retain our license and rights under the PLA, provided that we will remain bound by certain obligations under the PLA with respect milestone payments, royalties (subject to a reduction in rate, in the case of material breach), audits and indemnity.

Product License Agreement with Sanofi

In May, 2022, through our subsidiary, Rallybio IPE, LLC ("Rallybio IPE"), we entered into a License Agreement with Kymab Limited (Sanofi) (the "Sanofi License Agreement"). Under the Sanofi License Agreement, Sanofi provides Rallybio IPE with worldwide exclusive rights to Sanofi’s KY1066, which is now referred to as RLYB331. Under the terms of the Sanofi License Agreement, Rallybio has an exclusive license to certain Sanofi patents to develop, manufacture and commercialize RLYB331 and Rallybio agrees to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop and commercialize a licensed product in at least one indication in the field in each of several major markets, as described in the Sanofi License Agreement.

We paid Sanofi an upfront cash payment of $3.0 million. In addition, Rallybio has agreed to pay Sanofi up to an aggregate of $43.0 million in development and regulatory milestones and up to an aggregate of $150.0 million in commercial milestones for a product in its first indication, plus tiered low-to-mid double digit percentages of such milestone amounts for up to three additional indications, and mid to high single digit royalties on net sales.

The Sanofi License Agreement contains other customary license terms including sublicensing, development, regulatory, manufacturing, commercialization, milestones, royalties, intellectual property, and termination. The Sanofi License Agreement will expire on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis at the end of the applicable royalty term. Either party may terminate the Sanofi License Agreement upon material breach of the Sanofi License Agreement by the other, subject to a cure period. Rallybio may terminate the Sanofi License Agreement for convenience upon 90 days prior written notice to Sanofi. Sanofi may terminate the Sanofi License Agreement immediately in the case of Rallybio’s insolvency, bankruptcy or a similar event, or if Rallybio or its affiliates participates in any proceeding challenging the validity of the licensed patents.

If the Sanofi License Agreement is terminated in its entirety, among other things (a) all rights and licenses granted by Sanofi under the License Agreement (including any sublicenses) will terminate and (b) if Sanofi has an interest in developing, manufacturing and commercializing the licensed compounds or products, the parties to the Sanofi License Agreement shall negotiate an arrangement to provide Sanofi rights to the patents, know-how, materials and other properties controlled by Rallybio applicable to any of the licensed product.

Asset Purchase Agreements

Asset Transfer Agreement with Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB (Publ)

In March 2019, through IPC Research, we entered into an agreement with Sobi, pursuant to which we acquired the right, title and interest in assets related to certain C5 inhibitor compounds. We are currently developing the assets acquired from Sobi as RLYB116 and RLYB114.

We paid Sobi an upfront purchase price of $5.0 million and we are obligated to pay Sobi an aggregate amount of up to $51.0 million upon achievement of certain development milestones and an aggregate amount of up to $65.0 million upon achievement of certain sales milestones.

We also will pay Sobi tiered, low single-digit royalties on annual net sales to third parties for products containing any compound transferred under the agreement as an active ingredient. Our obligation to pay royalties expires, on a country-by-country and product-by-product basis, on the later of (a) the 10th anniversary following first commercial sale of such product in such country and (b) the expiration date in such country of the last to expire of any issued patent included in the patent rights acquired from Sobi that includes at least one valid claim covering the sale of such product in such country.

We are obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to research, develop and exploit at least one product that contains a compound transferred under the agreement as an active ingredient in each of the United States, EU and Japan.

If, prior to the commercial launch in the United States of the first product containing the compounds, we decide to divest our rights in the assets acquired from Sobi or to terminate all research, development and commercialization activities in respect of the acquired compounds, we must notify Sobi and negotiate in good faith with Sobi a possible business transaction relating to the assets. This right of negotiation will not apply to a transaction to sell

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all or substantially all of the assets of IPC Research or an affiliate of IPC Research, a pledge of the assets as collateral or a sale or transfer of the assets to an affiliate of IPC Research that agrees to be bound by the right of negotiation.

Asset Purchase Agreement with Prophylix

In June 2019, though our subsidiary Rallybio IPA, LLC ("Rallybio IPA"), we entered into an agreement with Prophylix to acquire all of Prophylix’s rights, title and interest in, to and under all assets, properties and rights related to Prophylix’s plasma-derived anti-HPA-1a immunoglobulin, and Prophylix’s monoclonal antibody, which we are developing as RLYB212.

We paid Prophylix an upfront purchase price of approximately $1.2 million and reimbursed Prophylix approximately $1.8 million for certain manufacturing costs incurred by Prophylix. We are obligated to pay Prophylix an aggregate of up to $19.0 million upon achievement of certain development milestones and an aggregate of up to $20.0 million upon achievement of certain sales milestones.

We also will pay Prophylix tiered, mid-single-digit royalties on annual net sales of products containing the monoclonal antibody and tiered mid-to-high-single and low-double-digit royalties on annual net sales of products containing plasma-derived anti-HPA-1a immunoglobulin, subject to certain offsets for royalties payable under certain third-party licenses. Furthermore, the then-applicable royalty rate will be reduced by a mid-double digit percentage for the remaining royalty term on a country-by-country basis if it becomes reasonably likely that the Prophylix patents may no longer be enforceable in such country due to a challenge of the enforceability of the patents or the enforceability of the royalty payments following the expiration of all valid claims of the patents in such country. Our obligation to pay royalties terminates on a country-by-country and product-by-product basis on the later of (a) the expiration of the last-to-expire valid claim of a Prophylix patent covering a product, (b) expiration of regulatory exclusivity for the product in such country or (c) the 10th year anniversary following first commercial sale of such product in such country.

In the event the FDA grants a priority review voucher for one of our product candidates developed using the technology acquired from Prophylix, we will pay Prophylix either: (a) if we sell such priority review voucher to a third-party within 12 months of its receipt, a mid-double digit percentage of the proceeds we receive from the sale, net of taxes, or (b) if we do not sell the priority review voucher to a third-party within 12 months of receipt, a mid-double digit percentage of the fair market value of the priority review voucher as determined in accordance with the agreement.

We are obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop and commercialize products containing plasma-derived anti-HPA-1a immunoglobulin in the United States and in at least one major European market. The agreement provides that if we provide notice to Prophylix that we determined that commercialization of products containing plasma-derived anti-HPA-1a immunoglobulin is not feasible due to an insufficient plasma supply following our continued and diligent efforts to obtain a sufficient plasma supply, then our obligation to develop products containing plasma-derived anti-HPA-1a immunoglobulin will cease, and we will be obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop and commercialize products containing the monoclonal antibody in the United States and in at least one major European market.

If, after using commercially reasonable efforts to develop and commercialize products containing plasma-derived anti-HPA-1a immunoglobulin and the monoclonal antibody in the United States and in at least one major European market, we decide not to pursue any further development or commercialization activities for such products, then Prophylix will have the right to repurchase the remaining assets acquired under the agreement for approximately $1.2 million. Prophylix also will have the right to repurchase the remaining assets acquired under the agreement for approximately $1.2 million if we elect to transfer all or substantially all of the assets acquired under the agreement to a third-party who does not agree to assume our obligations to develop and commercialize the products.

Joint Venture Agreement

In July 2019, we entered into a partnership with Exscientia and created RE Ventures I, LLC ("RE Ventures"), which is jointly owned by Exscientia and one of our wholly-owned subsidiaries, each a Member and collectively the Members. The joint venture was formed to initiate early-stage drug discovery of orally available small molecules targeting ENPP1 for the treatment of HPP, and thereafter for the future research, development, manufacture, sale and exploitation of any company-owned technology and compounds, including any resulting compound identified by the steering committee of the joint venture.

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Under the RE Ventures operating agreement, we received a 50% interest in the joint venture in exchange for an initial contribution of £0.5 million ($0.6 million, based on the exchange rate at the time). RE Ventures used this initial capital to fund stage 1 of the ENPP1 program, and we committed to fund additional amounts if costs of stage 1 exceeded the initial funding. In June 2020, RE Ventures determined that the stage 1 objective of discovering compounds for ENPP1 with a certain potency had been achieved. In 2020, we contributed £1.1 million ($1.3 million, based on the exchange rate at the time) in support of Stage 2 development of the ENPP1 program. During 2021, we contributed approximately £1.4 million ($2.0 million, based on the exchange rate at the time) to RE Ventures in support of ongoing Stage 2 development of the ENPP1 program. During 2022,we contributed £0.2 million ($0.3 million, based on the exchange rate at the time) to RE Ventures in support of ongoing development of the ENPP1 program. The board of managers of RE Ventures may determine from time to time that additional capital is necessary or appropriate to enable RE Ventures to conduct its activities, and may seek (but not require) additional capital contributions from the Members.

In the event that either Member does not fund a portion of committed additional amounts, the other Member may contribute the unfunded amount and the respective membership interests in RE Ventures will be adjusted accordingly.

A steering committee is responsible for oversight of RE Ventures’ research and deployment plans as well as intellectual property and regulatory matters. A two-person board of managers manages the business and affairs of RE Ventures and is responsible for all management and other responsibilities not specifically reserved to the steering committee or to the Members. Each Member designates one member to the board.

Each Member is subject to customary restrictions on its transfer of interests in RE Ventures, including a right of first refusal, co-sale right and drag-along provision.

AbCellera Collaboration Agreement

In December 2022, the Company entered into a strategic alliance to discover, develop, and commercialize novel antibody-based therapeutics for rare diseases. This multi-year, multi-target collaboration will combine AbCellera’s antibody discovery engine with Rallybio’s clinical and commercial expertise in rare diseases to identify optimal clinical candidates and ultimately deliver therapies to patients.

Under the terms of the agreement, AbCellera and Rallybio will co-develop up to five rare disease therapeutic targets, which will be chosen together by both companies. The collaboration will allow Rallybio to add product candidates to its existing pipeline and also provides the option for AbCellera to conduct process development and clinical manufacturing activities. The partnership’s first program will focus on addressing the significant unmet therapeutic needs of patients with rare metabolic diseases.

Manufacturing and Supply

We do not own or operate, and currently have no plans to establish, any internal manufacturing facilities. We currently rely and expect to continue to rely on third-party contract manufacturer organizations ("CMOs") for the manufacture of our product candidates for preclinical and clinical testing, as well as for commercial production of any product candidates that are approved.

We currently rely on multiple CMOs for all of our preclinical and clinical supply requirements, including drug substances and drug products, and label and packaging for our preclinical research and clinical trials. We believe that we will be able to contract with other CMOs to manufacture drug substances if our existing sources of drug substances were no longer available to us or with sufficient capacity, but there is no assurance that the drug substance capacity would be available from other CMOs on acceptable terms, on the timeframe that our business would require, or at all. We do not currently have supply commitments or other arrangements in place with our existing CMOs.

We do not have any current contractual relationships for the manufacture of commercial supplies of any of our product candidates if they are approved by the regulatory authorities, and we intend to enter into agreements with a CMO and one or more back-up manufacturers for the commercial production of our product candidates as they near phase 3 clinical trials.

Any products to be used in clinical trials and any approved product that we may commercialize will need to be manufactured in facilities, and by processes, that comply with the FDA’s current Good Manufacturing Practice ("cGMP") requirements and comparable requirements of the regulatory agencies of other jurisdictions in which we are seeking approval. We currently employ internal resources to manage our CMOs.

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We believe that RLYB212, RLYB116, RLYB114, and RLYB331 can be manufactured in reliable and reproducible biologic and chemical processes from readily available starting materials. We believe that our manufacturing processes are amenable to scale-up and will not require unusual or expensive equipment. We expect to continue to develop, on our own or with our collaborators, product candidates that can be produced cost-effectively at contract manufacturing facilities.

We expect to rely on third parties for the manufacture of any in vitro diagnostic device, companion diagnostics or companion drug delivery systems we develop. For example, we have engaged a third-party to assist in developing laboratory screening tests and in our evaluation of potential companion diagnostics in conjunction with our development of RLYB212. Depending on the regulatory pathway and technology solutions we choose, we may engage third parties to continue the development and manufacturing of any device developed to support our therapeutic products.

Government Regulation

The research, development, testing, manufacture, quality control, packaging, labeling, storage, record-keeping, distribution, import, export, promotion, advertising, marketing, sale, pricing and reimbursement of drug and biologic products are extensively regulated by governmental authorities in the United States and other countries. The processes for obtaining regulatory approvals in the United States and in foreign countries and jurisdictions, along with compliance with applicable statutes and regulations and other regulatory requirements, both pre-approval and post-approval, require the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. The regulatory requirements applicable to drug and biological product development, approval and marketing are subject to change, and regulations and administrative guidance often are revised or reinterpreted by the agencies in ways that may have a significant impact on our business.

U.S. Government Regulation of Drug and Biological Products

In the United States, the FDA regulates human drugs under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, (the "FDCA"), and in the case of biologics, also under the Public Health Service Act (the "PHSA"), and their implementing regulations. Failure to comply with the applicable U.S. requirements may result in FDA refusal to approve pending New Drug Applications ("NDAs") or Biologics License Applications ("BLAs") or delays in development and may subject an applicant to administrative or judicial sanctions, such as issuance of warning letters, or the imposition of fines, civil penalties, product recalls, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, injunctions and/or civil or criminal prosecution brought by the FDA and the U.S. Department of Justice or other governmental entities.

The FDA must approve our product candidates for therapeutic indications before they may be marketed in the United States. For drug products, the FDA must approve an NDA, and for biologic products, the FDA must approve a BLA. An applicant seeking approval to market and distribute a new drug or biologic in the United States generally must satisfactorily complete each of the following steps:

completion of preclinical laboratory tests and animal studies according to Good Laboratory Practice ("GLP") regulations or other applicable regulations;
manufacture and testing of the therapeutic or biologic moiety and its respective product formulation according to cGMP regulations or other applicable regulations;
submission to the FDA of an IND, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin and must be updated annually and amended when certain changes are made;
approval by an independent institutional review board ("IRB") or ethics committee representing each clinical trial site before each clinical trial may be initiated;
performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials in accordance with applicable IND regulations, good clinical practices ("GCPs") and other clinical-trial related regulations to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the investigational product for each proposed indication;
preparation and submission to the FDA of an NDA or BLA requesting marketing approval for one or more proposed indications, including payment of application user fees;
review of the NDA or BLA by an FDA advisory committee, where applicable;
satisfactory completion of one or more FDA inspections of the manufacturing facility or facilities at which the drug or biologic and its respective finished product is produced to assess compliance with cGMP requirements to assure that the facilities, methods and controls are adequate to preserve the product’s identity, strength, quality and purity;
satisfactory completion of any FDA audits of clinical trial sites to assure compliance with GCPs and the integrity of the clinical data submitted in support of the NDA or BLA; and

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FDA review and approval of the NDA or BLA, which may be subject to additional post- approval requirements, including the potential requirement to implement a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy ("REMS") and any other potential post- approval studies required by the FDA.

Preclinical Studies and IND

Before testing any drug or biological product candidate in humans, the product candidate must undergo rigorous preclinical testing. The preclinical developmental stage generally involves laboratory evaluations of drug chemistry/biology, formulation, and stability, as well as in vitro and animal studies to assess safety and in some cases to establish a rationale for therapeutic use. The conduct of preclinical studies is subject to federal regulations and requirements, including GLP regulations for safety and toxicology studies. The sponsor must submit the results of the preclinical studies, together with manufacturing information, analytical data, any available clinical data or literature and a proposed clinical protocol, to the FDA as part of the IND.

An IND is a request for authorization from the FDA to administer an investigational product to humans and must become effective before human clinical trials may begin. An IND automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless before that time, the FDA raises concerns or questions related to one or more proposed clinical trials and places the clinical trial on a clinical hold. In such a case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns before the clinical trial can begin. Imposition of a clinical hold could cause significant delays or difficulties in initiating and/or completing planned clinical trials in a timely manner. Certain long-term preclinical testing, such as animal tests of reproductive adverse events and carcinogenicity, may initiate or continue after an IND for an investigational product candidate is submitted to the FDA and human clinical trials have been initiated.

Human Clinical Trials in Support of an NDA or BLA

Clinical trials involve the administration of an investigational product candidate to healthy volunteers or patients with the disease to be treated under the supervision of qualified investigators. Clinical trials are conducted under protocols detailing the objectives of the study, inclusion and exclusion criteria, dosing procedures and the parameters to be used in monitoring the safety and effectiveness criteria to be evaluated. Each protocol, as well as any subsequent amendments, must be submitted to the FDA as part of the IND.

An IRB representing each institution that is participating in the clinical trial must review and approve the plan for any clinical trial before it commences at that institution, and the IRB must thereafter conduct a continuing review of the trial. The IRB will consider, among other things, clinical trial design, patient informed consent, ethical factors and the safety of human subjects. The IRB must review and approve, among other things, the trial protocol and informed consent information to be provided to clinical trial subjects or their legal representatives and must operate in compliance with FDA regulations.

Clinical trials must also comply with extensive GCP standards intended to ensure protection of human subjects and the quality and integrity of the study data, including requirements for obtaining subjects’ informed consent. Additionally, some clinical trials are overseen by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the clinical trial sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board or committee. This group may recommend continuation of the trial as planned, changes in trial conduct or cessation of the trial at designated checkpoints based on access to certain data from the study. The FDA may at any time while clinical trials are ongoing impose a partial or complete clinical hold based on concerns for patient safety and/or noncompliance with regulatory requirements. This order issued by the FDA would cause suspension of an ongoing trial until all outstanding concerns have been adequately addressed, and the FDA has notified the company that investigations may proceed.

Human clinical trials to evaluate therapeutic indications to support NDAs and BLAs for marketing approval are typically conducted in three sequential phases that may overlap or be combined:

Phase 1: The product candidate is initially introduced into human subjects and tested for safety, dosage tolerance, absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion, and if possible, to gain early evidence for effectiveness. Phase 1 trials may be conducted in healthy volunteers or, in the case of some products for severe or life-threatening diseases, including many rare diseases, the initial human testing is often conducted in patients with the target disease or condition.
Phase 2: Clinical trials are conducted in a limited patient population with a specified disease or condition to identify possible adverse effects and safety risks, to preliminarily evaluate the efficacy of the product for specific targeted diseases and to determine dosage tolerance and optimal dosage.

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Multiple Phase 2 clinical trials may be conducted to obtain information prior to beginning larger and more expensive Phase 3 clinical trials.
Phase 3: Clinical trials are undertaken with an expanded patient population to further evaluate dosage, and to provide substantial evidence of clinical efficacy and safety in an expanded patient population, often at geographically dispersed clinical study sites. These studies are intended to establish the overall risk-benefit ratio of the product candidate and provide, if appropriate, an adequate basis for product labeling. These trials may include comparisons with placebo and/or other comparator treatments. The duration of treatment is often extended to mimic the actual use of a product during marketing.

Post-approval trials, sometimes referred to as Phase 4 clinical trials, may be conducted after initial marketing approval. These trials are used to gain additional experience from the treatment of patients in the intended therapeutic indication, to document a clinical benefit in the case of drugs or biologics approved under FDA’s accelerated approval regulations and to generate additional safety data regarding use of the product in a clinical setting. In certain instances, the FDA may mandate the performance of Phase 4 clinical trials as a condition of approval of an NDA or BLA. Failure to exhibit due diligence with regard to conducting Phase 4 clinical trials could result in withdrawal of approval for the product.

The FDA or the sponsor may suspend or terminate a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the research subjects or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Similarly, an IRB can suspend or terminate approval of a clinical trial at its institution if the clinical trial is not being conducted in accordance with the clinical protocol, GCP or other IRB requirements or if the drug has been associated with unexpected serious harm to patients.

Information about certain clinical trials, including details of the protocol and eventually study results, also must be submitted within specific time frames to the National Institutes of Health for public dissemination on the ClinicalTrials.gov data registry. Similar requirements for posting clinical trial information in clinical trial registries exist in the EU and in other countries outside the United States.

During the development of a new drug or biological product, sponsors have the opportunity to meet with the FDA at certain points, including prior to submission of an IND, at the end of phase 2 and before submission of an NDA or BLA. These meetings can provide an opportunity for the sponsor to share information about the data gathered to date and for the FDA to provide advice on the next phase of development.

Concurrent with clinical trials, companies usually complete additional nonclinical studies and must also develop additional information about the physical characteristics of the drug or biological product and finalize a process for manufacturing the product in commercial quantities in accordance with cGMP requirements. The manufacturing process must be capable of consistently producing quality batches of the product candidate and, among other things, the manufacturer must develop methods for testing the identity, strength, quality, potency and purity of the final drug or biological product. For biological products in particular, the PHSA emphasizes the importance of manufacturing controls for products whose attributes cannot be precisely defined in order to help ensure safety, purity and potency.

Additionally, appropriate packaging must be selected and tested, and stability studies must be conducted to demonstrate that the product candidate does not undergo unacceptable deterioration over its shelf life.

Marketing Application Submission and FDA Review

Assuming successful completion of the required clinical testing, the results of the preclinical studies and clinical trials, along with information relating to the product’s chemistry, manufacturing, controls ("CMC") and proposed labeling, are submitted to the FDA as part of an NDA or BLA requesting approval to market the product for one or more indications. Data may come from company-sponsored clinical trials intended to test the safety and efficacy of a product’s use or from a number of alternative sources, including studies initiated by investigators. To support marketing approval, the data submitted must be sufficient in quality to establish the safety and efficacy of the investigational product to the satisfaction of the FDA. The fee required for the submission of an NDA or BLA under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act ("PDUFA") is substantial (for example, for fiscal year 2022 this application fee is approximately $3.1 million), and the sponsor of an approved NDA or BLA is also subject to an annual program fee, currently more than $350,000 per program. These fees are typically adjusted annually, but exemptions and waivers may be available under certain circumstances. No user fee is required for orphan drug product applications, except when an application also includes an indication for a non-rare disease or condition.

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The FDA conducts a preliminary review of all NDAs and BLAs within 60 days of receipt and informs the sponsor by the 74th day after the FDA’s receipt of the submission whether an application is sufficiently complete to permit substantive review. The FDA may request additional information rather than accept an NDA or BLA for filing. In this event, the application must be resubmitted with the additional information. The resubmitted application is also subject to review before the FDA accepts it for filing.

After the submission is accepted for filing, the FDA begins an in-depth substantive review of the application. Under the goals and policies agreed to by the FDA under PDUFA, the FDA has ten months from the filing date in which to complete its initial review of a standard application and respond to the applicant and six months from the filing date for an application with “priority review.” The review process may be extended by the FDA for three additional months to consider new information or in the case of a clarification provided by the applicant to address an outstanding deficiency identified by the FDA following the original submission. Despite these review goals, it is not uncommon for FDA review of an NDA or BLA to extend beyond the PDUFA goal date.

Before approving an NDA or BLA, the FDA will typically conduct a pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facilities for the therapeutic/biologic to determine whether the manufacturing processes and facilities comply with GMPs. The FDA will not approve the product unless it determines that the manufacturing processes and facilities comply with cGMP requirements and are adequate to assure consistent production of the product within required specifications. The FDA also may inspect the sponsor and one or more clinical trial sites to assure compliance with GCP requirements and the integrity of the clinical data submitted to the FDA.

Additionally, the FDA may refer any NDA or BLA, including applications for novel product candidates which present difficult questions of safety or efficacy, to an advisory committee for review, evaluation and recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions. Typically, an advisory committee is a panel of independent experts, including clinicians and other scientific experts. The FDA is not bound by the recommendation of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations when making final decisions on approval. The FDA also may require submission of a REMS, if it determines that a REMS is necessary to ensure that the benefits of the drug outweigh its risks and to assure the safe use of the drug or biological product. If the FDA concludes a REMS is needed, the sponsor of the NDA or BLA must submit a proposed REMS and the FDA will not approve the NDA or BLA without a REMS.

Under the Pediatric Research Equity Act of 2003 ("PREA"), an NDA or BLA or certain supplements thereto must contain data that are adequate to assess the safety and effectiveness of the product for the claimed indications in all relevant pediatric subpopulations, and to support dosing and administration for each pediatric subpopulation for which the product is safe and effective, unless this requirement is waived, deferred or inapplicable. Sponsors must submit a pediatric study plan to FDA outlining the proposed pediatric study or studies they plan to conduct, including study objectives and design, any deferral or waiver requests and other information required by regulation. The FDA must then review the information submitted, consult with the sponsor and agree upon a final plan. The FDA or the applicant may request an amendment to the plan at any time. In general, PREA requirements do not apply to drugs or biologics for indications granted orphan drug designation by the FDA.

The FDA reviews an NDA or BLA to determine, among other things, whether a product is safe and effective for its intended use and whether its manufacturing is cGMP-compliant to assure and preserve the product’s identity, strength, quality and purity. The approval process is lengthy and often difficult, and the FDA may refuse to approve an NDA or BLA if the applicable regulatory criteria are not satisfied or may require additional clinical or other data and information. After evaluating the application and all related information, including the advisory committee recommendations, if any, and inspection reports of manufacturing facilities and clinical trial sites, the FDA may issue either an approval letter or a Complete Response Letter ("CRL"). An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the product with specific prescribing information for specific indications. A CRL indicates that the review cycle of the application is complete and the application will not be approved in its present form. A CRL generally outlines the deficiencies in the submission and may require substantial additional testing or information in order for the FDA to reconsider the application. The CRL may require additional clinical or other data, additional pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial(s) and/or other significant and time- consuming requirements related to clinical trials, preclinical studies or manufacturing. If a CRL is issued, the applicant may either resubmit the NDA or BLA addressing all of the deficiencies identified in the letter or withdraw the application. If and when those deficiencies have been addressed to the FDA’s satisfaction in a resubmission of the NDA or BLA, the FDA will issue an approval letter. The FDA has committed to reviewing such resubmissions in response to an issued CRL in either two or six months depending on the type of information included. Even with the submission of this additional information, however, the FDA ultimately may decide that the application does not satisfy the regulatory criteria for approval.

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If a product receives regulatory approval from the FDA, the approval is limited to the conditions of use (e.g., patient population, indication) described in the FDA-approved labeling. Further, depending on the specific risk(s) to be addressed, the FDA may require that contraindications, warnings or precautions be included in the product labeling, require that post-approval trials, including Phase 4 clinical trials, be conducted to further assess a product’s safety after approval, require testing and surveillance programs to monitor the product after commercialization or impose other conditions, including distribution and use restrictions or other risk management mechanisms under a REMS which can materially affect the potential market and profitability of the product. The FDA may prevent or limit further marketing of a product based on the results of post-marketing trials or surveillance programs. After approval, some types of changes to the approved product, such as adding new indications, manufacturing changes and additional labeling claims, are subject to further testing requirements and FDA review and approval.

Regulation of Combination Products

Certain products may be comprised of components, such as drug or biologic components and device components that would normally be regulated under different types of regulations, and frequently by different centers at the FDA. These products are known as combination products. We expect to rely on a delivery system, such as pre-filled syringes, pen-injectors and/or autoinjectors to deliver certain of our product candidates. Although we have not yet selected the delivery system to use for administration of such product candidates, including RLYB212 and RLYB116, we expect that, if approved, any such product candidate would be regulated as a combination product, because it is composed of both a drug or biological product and a delivery system “device.”

Under the FDCA and its implementing regulations, the FDA is charged with assigning a center with primary jurisdiction, or a lead center, for review of a combination product. The designation of a lead center generally eliminates the need to receive approvals from more than one FDA center for combination products, although the lead center may consult with other centers within the FDA. The determination of which center will be the lead center is based on the “primary mode of action” of the combination product. Thus, if the primary mode of action of a drug-device combination product is attributable to the drug product, the FDA center responsible for review of the drug product would have primary jurisdiction for the combination product.

A combination product involving a novel drug or biological product and delivery system generally would have a drug or biologic primary mode of action. A combination product with a drug or biologic primary mode of action would be reviewed and approved pursuant to the drug or biologic approval processes. In reviewing the NDA or BLA for such a product, however, the FDA review division reviewing the application could consult with their counterparts in the device center to ensure that the device component of the combination product met applicable requirements regarding safety, effectiveness, durability and performance. Approval may require the performance of certain clinical studies, such as clinical usability or human factors studies to demonstrate the safety and/or effectiveness of the device component of the combination product.

Similar considerations apply to regulation of drugs combined with delivery systems outside the United States, including in the EU.

Expedited Programs for Serious Conditions

The FDA is authorized to designate certain products for expedited development or review if they are intended to address an unmet medical need in the treatment of a serious or life-threatening disease or condition. These programs include fast track designation, breakthrough therapy designation, priority review designation and accelerated approval.

To be eligible for a fast track designation, the FDA must determine, based on the request of a sponsor, that a product is intended to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and demonstrates the potential to address an unmet medical need by providing a therapy where none exists or a therapy that may be potentially superior to existing therapy based on efficacy or safety factors. Fast track designation provides opportunities for more frequent interactions with the FDA review team to expedite development and review of the product. The FDA also may review sections of the NDA or BLA for a fast track product on a rolling basis before the complete application is submitted if the sponsor and the FDA agree on a schedule for the submission of the application sections and the sponsor pays any required user fees upon submission of the first section of the NDA or BLA. Fast track designation may be rescinded by the FDA if the designation is no longer supported by data emerging from the clinical trial process.

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In addition, a new drug or biological product may be eligible for Breakthrough Therapy designation if it is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other drugs or biologics, to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition, and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug or biologic may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints, such as substantial treatment effects observed early in clinical development. Breakthrough Therapy designation provides all the features of Fast Track designation in addition to intensive guidance on an efficient development program beginning as early as Phase 1 and FDA organizational commitment to expedited development, including involvement of senior managers and experienced review staff in a cross-disciplinary review, where appropriate. Breakthrough designation may be rescinded by the FDA if the designation is no longer supported.

The FDA may designate a product for priority review if it is a drug or biologic that treats a serious condition and, if approved, would provide a significant improvement in safety or effectiveness. The FDA determines at the time that the marketing application is submitted, on a case-by-case basis, whether the proposed drug or biologic qualifies for priority review. Significant improvement over available therapies may be illustrated, for example, by evidence of increased effectiveness in the treatment of a condition, elimination or substantial reduction of a treatment-limiting drug reaction, documented enhancement of patient compliance that may lead to improvement in serious outcomes, or evidence of safety and effectiveness in a new subpopulation. A priority review designation is intended to direct overall attention and resources to the evaluation of such applications and to shorten the FDA’s goal for taking action on a marketing application from ten months to six months for an original BLA or NDA from the date of filing.

Fast track designation, breakthrough therapy designation and priority review do not change the standards for approval and may not ultimately expedite the development or approval process.

Finally, the FDA may grant accelerated approval to a product for a serious or life-threatening condition that provides meaningful therapeutic advantage to patients over existing treatments based upon a determination that the product has an effect on a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. The FDA may also grant accelerated approval for such a condition when the product has an effect on an intermediate clinical endpoint that can be measured earlier than an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality ("IMM") and that is reasonably likely to predict an effect on IMM or other clinical benefit, taking into account the severity, rarity, or prevalence of the condition and the availability or lack of alternative treatments. For drugs granted accelerated approval, FDA generally requires sponsors to conduct, in a diligent manner, additional post-approval confirmatory studies to verify and describe the product’s clinical benefit. Failure to conduct required post-approval studies with due diligence, failure to confirm a clinical benefit during the post-approval studies, or dissemination of false or misleading promotional materials would allow the FDA to withdraw the product approval on an expedited basis. All promotional materials for product candidates approved under accelerated approval are subject to prior review by the FDA unless FDA informs the applicant otherwise.

Post-approval Requirements

Following approval of a new product, the manufacturer and the approved product are subject to pervasive and continuing regulation by the FDA, governing, among other things, monitoring and recordkeeping activities, reporting of adverse experiences with the product and product problems to the FDA, product sampling and distribution, manufacturing and promotion and advertising. Although physicians may prescribe legally available products for unapproved uses or patient populations (i.e., “off-label uses”), manufacturers may not market or promote such uses. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant liability.

If there are any modifications to the product, including changes in indications, labeling or manufacturing processes or facilities, the applicant may be required to submit and obtain FDA approval of a new NDA/BLA or an NDA/BLA supplement, which may require the applicant to develop additional data or conduct additional preclinical studies and clinical trials. The FDA may also place other conditions on approvals including the requirement for a REMS to assure the safe use of the product, which may require substantial commitment of resources post-approval to ensure compliance. A REMS could include medication guides, physician communication plans or elements to assure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries and other risk minimization tools. Any of these limitations on approval or marketing could restrict the commercial promotion, distribution, prescription or dispensing of products. Product approvals may be withdrawn for non-compliance with regulatory standards or if problems occur following initial marketing.

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FDA regulations require that drug and biological products be manufactured in specific approved facilities and in accordance with cGMPs. The cGMP regulations include requirements relating to organization of personnel, buildings and facilities, equipment, control of components and drug product containers and closures, production and process controls, packaging and labeling controls, holding and distribution, laboratory controls, records and reports and returned or salvaged products. The manufacturing facilities for our product candidates must meet cGMP requirements and satisfy the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities’ satisfaction before any product is approved and our commercial products can be manufactured. In addition, for any of our product candidates that include a device delivery system, the device component will be subject to aspects of the Quality System Regulations ("QSRs") applicable to medical devices. Manufacturers of drug-device combination products may either opt to comply with all quality regulations governing each component of the product separately, or may take a “streamlined approach” to cGMP that allows the manufacturer to demonstrate compliance with the drug cGMPs along with compliance with several specific provisions from the device QSR—namely, management responsibility, design controls, purchasing controls, corrective and preventive action, installation, and servicing, as applicable.

We rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties for the production of clinical and commercial quantities of our products in accordance with cGMP regulations. These manufacturers must comply with cGMP regulations, including requirements for quality control and quality assurance, the maintenance of records and documentation and the obligation to investigate and correct any deviations from cGMP. Manufacturers and other entities involved in the manufacture and distribution of approved drugs or biologics are required to register their establishments with the FDA and certain state agencies and are subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA and certain state agencies for compliance with cGMP and other laws. Accordingly, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money and effort in the area of production and quality control to maintain cGMP compliance. Future inspections by the FDA and other regulatory agencies may identify compliance issues at the facilities of our CMOs that may disrupt production or distribution or require substantial resources to correct. In addition, the discovery of conditions that violate these rules, including failure to conform to cGMPs, could result in enforcement actions, and the discovery of problems with a product after approval may result in restrictions on a product, manufacturer, or holder of an approved NDA or BLA, including voluntary recall and regulatory sanctions as described below.

Once an approval of a drug/biologic product is granted, the FDA may withdraw the approval if compliance with regulatory requirements and standards is not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the market. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in mandatory revisions to the approved labeling to add new safety information, imposition of post-market clinical trials requirement to assess new safety risks or imposition of distribution or other restrictions under a REMS program. Other potential consequences include, among other things:

restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of the product, complete withdrawal of the product from the market or product recalls;
safety alerts, Dear Healthcare Provider letters, press releases or other communications containing warnings or other safety information about a product;
mandated modification of promotional materials and labeling and issuance of corrective information;
fines, warning letters, untitled letters or other enforcement-related letters or clinical holds on post-approval clinical trials;
refusal of the FDA to approve pending NDAs/BLAs or supplements to approved NDAs/BLAs, or suspension or revocation of product approvals;
product seizure or detention, or refusal to permit the import or export of products;
injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties; and
consent decrees, corporate integrity agreements, debarment, or exclusion from federal health care programs; or mandated modification of promotional materials and labeling and the issuance of corrective information.

In addition, the distribution of prescription pharmaceutical products is subject to the Prescription Drug Marketing Act ("PDMA"), which regulates the distribution of drugs and drug samples at the federal level and sets minimum standards for the registration and regulation of drug distributors by the states. Additionally, the Drug Supply Chain Security Act ("DSCSA") imposes requirements related to identifying and tracing certain prescription drugs distributed in the United States, including most biological products.

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U.S. Patent Term Restoration and Hatch-Waxman Marketing Exclusivity

Depending upon the timing, duration and specifics of FDA approval for our product candidates, some of our U.S. patents may be eligible for limited patent term extension under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, commonly referred to as the Hatch-Waxman Amendments. The Hatch Waxman Amendments permit restoration of the patent term up to five years as compensation for patent term lost during the FDA regulatory review process. Patent-term restoration, however, cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the product’s approval date, and only those claims covering such approved drug product, a method for using it or a method for manufacturing it may be extended. The patent-term restoration period is generally one-half the time between the effective date of an IND and the submission date of an NDA or BLA plus the time during which the applicant failed to exercise due diligence. Only one patent applicable to an approved drug is eligible for the extension, and the application for the extension must be submitted prior to the expiration of the patent. The USPTO, in consultation with the FDA, reviews and approves the application for any patent term extension or restoration.

Regulatory exclusivity provisions under the FDCA also can delay the submission or the approval of certain applications. The FDCA provides a five-year period of non-patent marketing exclusivity within the United States to the first applicant to gain approval of an NDA for a new chemical entity. A drug is a new chemical entity if the FDA has not previously approved any other new drug containing the same active moiety, which is the molecule or ion responsible for the action of the drug substance. During the exclusivity period, the FDA may not accept for review an abbreviated new drug application ("ANDA") or a 505(b)(2) NDA submitted by another company for another version of such drug. However, an application may be submitted after four years if it contains a certification of patent invalidity or non-infringement.

The FDCA also provides three years of exclusivity for an NDA, 505(b)(2) NDA or supplement to an existing NDA if new clinical investigations, other than bioavailability studies, that were conducted or sponsored by the applicant are deemed by the FDA to be essential to the approval of the application. This three-year exclusivity covers only the conditions of use associated with the new clinical investigations and does not prohibit the FDA from approving ANDAs for drugs containing the original active agent for other conditions of use. Three-year exclusivity will not delay the submission or approval of a full NDA. However, an applicant submitting a full NDA would be required to conduct or obtain a right of reference to all of the preclinical studies and adequate and well-controlled clinical trials necessary to demonstrate safety and effectiveness.

In addition, both drugs and biologics can obtain pediatric exclusivity in the United States. Pediatric exclusivity, if granted, adds six months to existing exclusivity periods and patent terms. This six-month exclusivity, which runs from the end of other exclusivity protection or patent term, may be granted based on the voluntary completion of a pediatric study in accordance with an FDA-issued “Written Request” for such a study.

Biosimilars and Reference Product Exclusivity for Biological Products

In March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was enacted in the United States and included the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 (the "BPCIA"). The BPCIA amended the PHSA to create an abbreviated approval pathway for biological products that are biosimilar to or interchangeable with an FDA-licensed reference biological product. To date, the FDA has approved a number of biosimilars. No interchangeable biosimilars, however, have been approved. The FDA has also issued several guidance documents outlining its approach to reviewing and approving biosimilars and interchangeable biosimilars.

Under the BPCIA, a manufacturer may submit an application that is “biosimilar to” or “interchangeable with” a previously approved biological product or “reference product.” In order for the FDA to approve a biosimilar product, it must find that there are no clinically meaningful differences between the reference product and proposed biosimilar product in terms of safety, purity and potency. For the FDA to approve a biosimilar product as interchangeable with a reference product, the agency must find that the biosimilar product can be expected to produce the same clinical results as the reference product and (for products administered multiple times) that the biologic and the reference biologic may be switched after one has been previously administered without increasing safety risks or risks of diminished efficacy relative to exclusive use of the reference biologic. Upon licensure by the FDA, an interchangeable biosimilar may be substituted for the reference product without the intervention of the health care provider who prescribed the reference product, although to date no such products have been approved for marketing in the United States.

The biosimilar applicant must demonstrate that the product is biosimilar based on data from analytical studies showing that the biosimilar product is highly similar to the reference product, data from animal studies (including

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toxicity) and data from one or more clinical studies to demonstrate safety, purity and potency in one or more appropriate conditions of use for which the reference product is approved. In addition, the applicant must show that the biosimilar and reference products have the same mechanism of action for the conditions of use on the label, route of administration, dosage and strength, and the production facility must meet standards designed to assure product safety, purity, and potency.

A reference biological product is granted 12 years of data exclusivity from the time of first licensure of the product, and the first approved interchangeable biologic product will be granted an exclusivity period of up to one year after it is first commercially marketed. The FDA will not accept an application for a biosimilar or interchangeable product based on the reference biological product until four years after the date of first licensure of the reference product.

The BPCIA is complex and only beginning to be interpreted and implemented by the FDA. In addition, recent government proposals have sought to reduce the 12-year reference product exclusivity period. Other aspects of the BPCIA, some of which may impact the BPCIA exclusivity provisions, have also been the subject of recent litigation. As a result, the ultimate impact, implementation and meaning of the BPCIA is subject to significant uncertainty.

Orphan Drug Designation and Exclusivity

Orphan drug designation in the United States is designed to encourage sponsors to develop products intended for the treatment of rare diseases or conditions. In the United States, a rare disease or condition is statutorily defined as a condition that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States or that affects more than 200,000 individuals in the United States and for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making the product available for the disease or condition will be recovered from sales of the product in the United States.

Orphan drug designation qualifies a company for certain tax credits. In addition, if a product candidate that has orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first FDA approval for that drug for the disease for which it has such designation, the product is entitled to orphan drug exclusivity, which means that the FDA may not approve any other applications to market the same drug for the same indication for seven years following product approval unless the subsequent product candidate is demonstrated to be clinically superior. Absent a showing of clinical superiority, the FDA cannot approve the same product made by another manufacturer for the same indication during the market exclusivity period unless it has the consent of the sponsor or the sponsor is unable to provide sufficient quantities.

A sponsor may request orphan drug designation of a previously unapproved product or new orphan indication for an already marketed product. More than one sponsor may receive orphan drug designation for the same product for the same rare disease or condition, but each sponsor seeking orphan drug designation must file a complete orphan disease designation application. To qualify for orphan exclusivity, however, the drug must be clinically superior to the previously approved product that is the same drug for the same condition. If a product designated as an orphan drug ultimately receives marketing approval for an indication broader than what was designated in its orphan drug application, it may not be entitled to exclusivity.

RLYB211 and RLYB212 have each been granted orphan drug designation by the FDA for the prevention of FNAIT.

Rare Pediatric Disease Designation and Priority Review Vouchers

In 2012, Congress enacted the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act requiring the FDA to award priority review vouchers to sponsors of certain rare pediatric disease product applications. This program is designed to encourage development of new drug and biological products for prevention and treatment of “rare pediatric diseases” by, upon initial approval of an application meeting certain specified criteria, providing companies with a voucher that can be redeemed to receive a priority review of a subsequent marketing application for a different product. The sponsor of a rare pediatric disease drug product receiving a priority review voucher may sell or otherwise transfer the voucher to another company. The voucher may be further transferred any number of times before the voucher is used, as long as the sponsor making the transfer has not yet submitted an application relying on the priority review voucher. The FDA may also revoke any rare pediatric disease priority review voucher if the rare pediatric disease product for which the voucher was awarded is not marketed in the United States within one year following the date of approval.

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In order to receive a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher upon BLA or NDA approval, the product must receive designation from the FDA as a drug for a rare pediatric disease prior to submission of the marketing application. A “rare pediatric disease” is a disease that is serious or life-threatening, in which the serious or life-threatening manifestations primarily affect individuals aged from birth to 18 years and affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United States, or affects more than 200,000 people in the United States but there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making available in the United States a drug for such disease or condition will be recovered from sales in the United States of such drug. In addition to receiving rare pediatric disease designation, in order to receive a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher, the NDA or BLA must be given priority review, rely on clinical data derived from studies examining a pediatric population and dosages of the drug intended for that population, not seek approval for a different adult indication in the original rare pediatric disease product application and be for a drug that does not include a previously approved active ingredient. In addition, under current statutory sunset provisions, even if a marketing application meets all of these requirements, FDA may only award a voucher prior to September 30, 2026 and only if the approved product received rare pediatric disease drug product designation prior to September 30, 2024.

RLYB211 and RLYB212 have each been granted rare pediatric disease designation by the FDA.

FDA Approval or Clearance of Companion Diagnostics

Under the FDCA, in vitro diagnostics, including companion diagnostics, are regulated as medical devices. In the United States, the FDCA and its implementing regulations, and other federal and state statutes and regulations govern, among other things, medical device design and development, preclinical and clinical testing, premarket clearance or approval, registration and listing, manufacturing, labeling, storage, advertising and promotion, sales and distribution, export and import, and post-market surveillance. Unless an exemption applies, diagnostic tests require marketing clearance via 510(k) notification or approval via Premarket Approval (“PMA”) application from the FDA prior to commercial distribution.

In August 2014, the FDA issued final guidance clarifying the requirements that will apply to approval of therapeutic products and in vitro companion diagnostics. According to the guidance, for novel drugs and biologics, a companion diagnostic device and its corresponding therapeutic should be approved or cleared contemporaneously by the FDA for the use indicated in the therapeutic product’s labeling. Approval or clearance of the companion diagnostic device will ensure that the device has been adequately evaluated and has adequate performance characteristics in the intended population. In July 2016, the FDA issued a draft guidance intended to assist sponsors of the therapeutic products and in vitro companion diagnostic devices on issues related to co-development of the products.

The FDA previously has required in vitro companion diagnostics intended to select the patients who will respond to a product candidate to obtain PMA simultaneously with approval of the therapeutic product candidate. The PMA process, including the gathering of clinical and preclinical data and the submission to and review by the FDA, can take several years or longer. It involves a rigorous premarket review during which the applicant must prepare and provide the FDA with reasonable assurance of the device’s safety and effectiveness and information about the device and its components regarding, among other things, device design, manufacturing, and labeling. PMA applications are subject to an application fee, which for fiscal year 2022 is $374,858.

A clinical trial is typically required for a PMA application and, in some cases, the FDA may require a clinical study in support of a 510(k) submission. A manufacturer that wishes to conduct a clinical study involving the device is subject to the FDA’s investigational device exemption ("IDE") regulation. The IDE regulations distinguish between significant and non-significant risk device studies and the procedures for obtaining approval to begin the study differ accordingly. Also, some types of studies are exempt from the IDE regulations. A significant risk device presents a potential for serious risk to the health, safety, or welfare of a subject. Significant risk devices are devices that are substantially important in diagnosing, curing, mitigating, or treating disease or in preventing impairment to human health. Studies of devices that pose a significant risk require both FDA and an IRB approval prior to initiation of a clinical study. Many companion diagnostics are considered significant risk devices due to their role in diagnosing a disease or condition. Non-significant risk devices are devices that do not pose a significant risk to the human subjects. A non-significant risk device study requires only IRB approval prior to initiation of a clinical study.

After a device is placed on the market, it remains subject to significant regulatory requirements. Medical devices may be marketed only for the uses and indications for which they are cleared or approved. Device manufacturers must also establish registration and device listings with the FDA. In the United States, device manufacturers are also subject to FDA’s medical device reporting regulations, which require that a manufacturer report to the FDA if

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a device it markets may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury, or has malfunctioned and the device or a similar device that it markets would be likely to cause or contribute to a death or serious injury, if the malfunction were to recur, and FDA’s correction and removal reporting regulations, which require that manufacturers report to the FDA corrections or removals if undertaken to reduce a risk to health posed by the device or to remedy a violation of the FDCA that may present a risk to health. A medical device manufacturer’s manufacturing processes and those of its suppliers are required to comply with the applicable portions of the QSR, which covers the methods and documentation of the design, testing, production, processes, controls, quality assurance, labeling, packaging, and shipping of medical devices. Domestic facility records and manufacturing processes are subject to periodic unscheduled inspections by the FDA. The FDA also may inspect foreign facilities that export products to the United States.

Regulation Outside of the United States

In addition to regulations in the United States, we will be subject to a variety of foreign regulations governing clinical trials and commercial sales and distribution of our products outside of the United States. Whether or not we obtain FDA approval for a product candidate, we must obtain approval by the comparable regulatory authorities of foreign countries or economic areas, such as the 27-EU member states, before we may commence clinical trials or market products in those countries or areas.

 

Following the United Kingdom’s (the “UK”) vote to leave the EU, in Great Britain (being England, Wales and Scotland), all medicinal products with a centralized EU marketing authorization were automatically converted to Great Britain marketing authorizations unless marketing authorization holders opted out of this process. According to Article 5(4) of Annex 2 to the Northern Ireland Protocol contained in the Agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the EU and the European Atomic Energy Community, centralized marketing authorizations continue to apply in Northern Ireland. For three years from January 1, 2021, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency ("MHRA"), the UK medicines regulator, may rely on a European Commission marketing authorization approval in the centralized procedure in order to expedite an application for a Great Britain marketing authorization. A separate application is still required, and marketing authorizations are granted by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency.

 

The EU and the UK have concluded a trade and cooperation agreement (“TCA”), which was provisionally applicable from January 1, 2021 and has been formally applicable since May 1, 2021. The TCA includes specific provisions concerning pharmaceuticals, which include the mutual recognition of the outcomes of good manufacturing practice (“GMP”) inspections and applicants and marketing authorization holders may submit GMP certificates issued by the MHRA for sites located outside the EU/European Economic Area (“EEA”) as supporting information for EU regulatory submissions. However, the TCA does not foresee wholesale mutual recognition of UK and EU pharmaceutical regulations. Great Britain has also implemented EU legislation on the marketing, promotion and sale of medicinal products through the Human Medicines Regulations 2012 (as amended) (under the Northern Ireland Protocol, the EU regulatory framework will continue to apply in Northern Ireland, which is the subject of ongoing negotiation between the UK Government and the European Commission). The regulatory regime in Great Britain currently broadly aligns with EU regulations. However it is possible that these regimes may diverge in future. It remains to be seen how Brexit will impact regulatory requirements for product candidates and products in the UK in the long-term.

With the exception of the EU EEA applying the harmonized regulatory rules for medicinal products, the approval process and requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials, product licensing, pricing and reimbursement vary greatly between countries and jurisdictions and can involve additional testing and additional administrative review periods. The time required to obtain approval in other countries and jurisdictions might differ from and be longer than that required to obtain FDA approval. Regulatory approval in one country or jurisdiction does not ensure regulatory approval in another, but a failure or delay in obtaining regulatory approval in one country or jurisdiction may negatively impact the regulatory process in others.

European Union Drug Development, Review and Approval

In the EU, our product candidates will also be subject to extensive regulatory requirements. As in the United States, medicinal products can be marketed only if a marketing authorization is granted by a competent regulatory agency. Similar to the United States, the various phases of preclinical and clinical research in the EU are subject to significant regulatory controls.

 

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The EU clinical trials regulatory framework is currently in the process of transitioning to an updated regime. Although the old regime, the EU Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC(the “CTD”), sought to harmonize the EU clinical trials regulatory framework, the EU Member States applied the provisions of the CTD differently. This led to significant variations in the Member State regimes. Under the current regime, before a clinical trial can be initiated it must be authorized in each of the EU Member States where the trial is to be conducted by the National Competent Authority (“NCA”), and an Ethics Committee, in each EU Member State where the trial is to be conducted must have issued a favorable opinion on the trial. Under the old regime all suspected unexpected serious adverse reactions to the investigated drug that occur during the clinical trial must be reported to the NCA and Ethics Committees of the EU Member State where they occurred.

 

As of January 31, 2022, Regulation (EU) No 536/2014 on clinical trials (the “CTR”), came into effect, and with it, the launch of the Clinical Trials Information System (“CTIS”), the centralized EU portal and database for clinical trials. The CTR is directly applicable in all EU Member States (and so does not require national implementing legislation in each EU Member State to give effect to the EU law instrument). The CTR has simplified the approval process for clinical trials to be carried out in the EU. Rather than applying for a clinical trial authorization in each EU Member State where the trial will be conducted, the CTR provides that one application be submitted centrally, via CTIS, which will then be reviewed by the designated NCA. If successful, the resulting decision arising from the evaluation process would cover all EU Member States concerned by the application. From January 31, 2023 all submissions of initial CTA applications for a new clinical trial must be made via CTIS. By January 31, 2025, all ongoing trials approved under the CTD must comply with the CTR and information relating to such clinical trials must be recorded in CTIS.

For any of our product candidates that incorporate a medical device to administer the medicinal product and are intended to be commercialized as a single integral product intended exclusively for use in the given combination and not usable separately, then the combination product is regulated by Directive 2001/83/EC or Regulation (EC) 726/2004 as a medicinal product. However, the medical device used for administration must satisfy the requirements for its general safety and performance under EU law governing general medical devices.

The EU regulatory regime currently provided under Directive 93/42/EEC (the "Medical Devices Directive") will be replaced by Regulation (EU) 2017/745 on medical devices (the "Medical Devices Regulation"). The Medical Devices Regulation came into application on May 26, 2021, subject to the transitional provisions for certain medical devices to remain on the EU market if they were certified under the Medical Devices Directive for a limited period. There are significant changes to the EU regulatory system governing medical devices under the Medical Devices Regulation.

 

Under the Medical Devices Regulation, data relating to the general safety and performance of the medical device must be contained in an application for marketing authorization for the combination product. Such information must be provided by the manufacturer of the medical device in its EU declaration of conformity or the relevant certificate issued by a notified body allowing the medical device manufacturer to affix a European Conformity (“CE”) mark to the medical device. If the dossier submitted to support the marketing authorization does not include the results of the conformity assessment and where for the conformity assessment of the device, if used separately, the involvement of a notified body is required in accordance with the Medical Devices Regulation, the medicinal products authority such as the EMA responsible for assessing applications for marketing authorization via the centralized procedure can require the applicant for a marketing authorization to provide an opinion on the conformity of the device part with the relevant general safety and performance requirements issued by a designated notified body.

 

By May 26, 2024, all manufacturers must comply with the Medical Devices Regulation. However, the EU legislature has proposed extending this transitional period. This proposal is currently being considered through the co-decision legislative procedure for the draft legislation to be adopted by the European Parliament and the European Council.

 

Under the EU regulatory regime, a company may submit marketing authorization applications under a centralized, decentralized or mutual recognition procedure. Where the product is intended to be marketed in one EU member state, a national application for a marketing authorization is filed. The centralized procedure is compulsory for medicinal products produced by biotechnology, designated orphan medicines, advanced-therapy medicines such as gene-therapies, and those medicinal products containing new active substances for specific indications such as the treatment of HIV, AIDS and immune dysfunctions, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and viral diseases, and is optional for other medicines, which are highly innovative.

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Centralized Procedure

Under the centralized procedure, a single marketing authorization application is submitted to the EMA where it will be evaluated by its advisory committee, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (the “CHMP”). A favorable CHMP opinion results in a single marketing authorization granted by the European Commission in an implementing decision, known as a centralized marketing authorization. A centralized marketing authorization is valid for all EU member states and, by extension (after taking the corresponding national implementing measures), in Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. In general, the initial marketing authorization is valid for five years, but once renewed is usually valid for an unlimited period. Under the centralized procedure, the maximum timeframe for the evaluation of a marketing authorization application by the EMA is 210 days, excluding clock stops. Clock-stops allow the applicant the necessary time to provide additional information in response to questions raised by the CHMP. The clock-stops considerably extend the time taken by the CHMP to complete the evaluation of a marketing authorization application. Ordinarily, within 67 days of receipt of the positive scientific opinion provided by the EMA, the European Commission will issue a binding decision on the marketing authorization application.

 

Decentralized Procedure

The decentralized procedure allows marketing authorization applications to be submitted simultaneously in two or more EU member states, whereas the mutual recognition procedure must be used if the product has been authorized in at least one EU member state on a national basis, and the applicant seeks approval progressively of the same medicinal product in one or more EU member state(s). Both the decentralized and mutual recognition procedures provide for approval by one or more “concerned” member state(s) based on an assessment of an application performed by one “reference” member state. Under the decentralized approval procedure, an applicant submits an application, or dossier, and related materials to the reference member state and concerned member state(s). The reference member state prepares a draft assessment and drafts of the related materials within 120 days of the receipt of a valid application. Within 90 days of receiving the reference member state’s positive assessment report, each concerned member state must approve the assessment report and related materials, unless they identify a potential serious risk to public health.

 

Mutual Recognition Procedure

Under the mutual recognition procedure, the concerned member state(s) have the same 90-day period to recognize the marketing authorization in the reference member state. The decentralized procedure contemplates a single clock-stop at day 105, which may extend the process for completing the assessment procedure.

In either case, if there is a disagreement between member states during the assessment of the submitted data based on concerns about serious risks to public health, the Coordination Group for Mutual Recognition and Decentralized Procedures will consider the matter and seek to reach a conclusion within 60 days. If this is not possible, the reference member state can escalate the issue to the EMA for arbitration. The purely national procedure results in a marketing authorization in a single EU member state.

 

Conditional Marketing Authorization

In specific circumstances, E.U. legislation (Article 14–a Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 (as amended by Regulation (EU) 2019/5 and Regulation (EC) No 507/2006 on Conditional Marketing Authorizations for Medicinal Products for Human Use)) enables applicants to obtain a conditional marketing authorization prior to obtaining the comprehensive clinical data required for an application for a full marketing authorization. Such conditional approvals may be granted for product candidates (including medicines designated as orphan medicinal products) if (1) the product candidate is intended for the treatment, prevention or medical diagnosis of seriously debilitating or life-threatening diseases; (2) the drug candidate is intended to meet unmet medical needs of patients; (3) a marketing authorization may be granted prior to submission of comprehensive clinical data provided that the benefit of the immediate availability on the market of the medicinal product concerned outweighs the risk inherent in the fact that additional data are still required; (4) the risk-benefit balance of the product candidate is positive, and (5) it is likely that the applicant will be in a position to provide the required comprehensive clinical trial data. A conditional marketing authorization may contain specific obligations to be fulfilled by the marketing authorization holder, including obligations with respect to the completion of ongoing or new studies and with respect to the collection of pharmacovigilance data. Conditional marketing authorizations are valid for one year, and can be renewed annually, if the risk-benefit balance remains positive, and after a satisfactory assessment of benefit: risk balance and progress in fulfilling the specific obligations. The timelines for the centralized procedure described above also apply with respect to the review by the CHMP of applications for a conditional marketing authorization.

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Pediatric Studies

In the EEA, companies developing a new medicinal product must agree upon a pediatric investigation plan (“PIP”), with the EMA’s Pediatric Committee (“PDCO”) and must conduct pediatric clinical trials in accordance with that PIP, unless a waiver applies. The PIP sets out the timing and measures proposed to generate data to support a pediatric indication of the drug for which a marketing authorization is being sought. The PDCO can grant a deferral of the obligation to implement some or all of the measures of the PIP until there are sufficient data to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of the product in adults or other age groups not covered by the agreed PIP. Further, the obligation to provide pediatric clinical trial data can be waived by the PDCO in circumstances where the medicinal product or the product class is likely to be ineffective or unsafe in part or all of the pediatric population; or the disease or condition occurs only in adult populations, or the specific medicinal product does not represent a significant therapeutic benefit over existing treatments in pediatric patients. Products that are granted a marketing authorization with the results of the pediatric clinical trials conducted in accordance with the PIP (even where such results are negative) are eligible for six months’ supplementary protection certificate extension. In the case of orphan medicinal products, a two-year extension of the orphan market exclusivity may be available. This pediatric reward is subject to the condition that the results are provided in respect of all studies in compliance with the agreed PIP and is not automatically available.

 

European Union Regulatory Data Exclusivity

In the EU, new products, which are considered referenced medicinal products, authorized for marketing qualify for eight years of data exclusivity and an additional two years of market exclusivity upon grants of a marketing authorization. The data exclusivity period prevents generic or biosimilar applicants from relying on the preclinical and clinical trial data contained in the dossier of the reference product when applying for a generic or biosimilar marketing authorization in the EU during a period of eight years from the date on which the reference product was first authorized in the EU. The market exclusivity period prevents a successful generic or biosimilar applicant from commercializing its product in the EU until ten years have elapsed from the initial authorization of the reference product in the EU. The ten-year market exclusivity period can be extended to a maximum of eleven years if, during the first eight years of those ten years, the marketing authorization holder obtains an authorization for one or more new therapeutic indications which, during the scientific evaluation prior to their authorization, are held to bring a significant clinical benefit in comparison with existing therapies.

European Union Orphan Designation and Exclusivity

The criteria for designating an orphan medicinal product in the EU are similar in principle to those in the United States. Under Article 3 of Regulation (EC) 141/2000, a medicinal product may be designated as orphan if (1) it is intended for the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of a life- threatening or chronically debilitating condition, (2) either (a) such condition affects no more than five in 10,000 persons in the EU when the application is made, or (b) the product, without the benefits derived from orphan status, would not generate sufficient return in the EU to justify investment and (3) there exists no satisfactory method of diagnosis, prevention or treatment of such condition authorized for marketing in the EU, or if such a method exists, the product will be of significant benefit to those affected by the condition. The term ‘significant benefit’ is defined in Regulation (EC) 847/2000 to mean a clinically relevant advantage or a major contribution to patient care.

Orphan medicinal products are eligible for financial incentives such as reduction of fees or fee waivers and are, upon grant of a marketing authorization, entitled to ten years of market exclusivity for the approved therapeutic indication. During this ten year market exclusivity period, the EMA or the competent authorities of the Member States of the EEA, cannot accept an application for a marketing authorization for a similar medicinal product for the same indication. A similar medicinal product is defined as a medicinal product containing a similar active substance or substances as contained in an authorized orphan medicinal product, and which is intended for the same therapeutic indication. The application for orphan designation must be submitted before the application for marketing authorization. The applicant will receive a fee reduction for the marketing authorization application if the orphan designation has been granted, but not if the designation is still pending at the time the marketing authorization is submitted. Orphan designation does not convey any advantage in, or shorten the duration of, the regulatory review and approval process.

The ten-year market exclusivity in the EU may be reduced to six years if, at the end of the fifth year, it is established that the product no longer meets the criteria for orphan designation, for example, if the product is

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sufficiently profitable not to justify maintenance of market exclusivity. Additionally, marketing authorization may be granted to a similar product for the same indication at any time if:

the second applicant can establish that its product, although similar, is safer, more effective or otherwise clinically superior;
the applicant consents to a second orphan medicinal product application; or
the applicant cannot supply enough orphan medicinal product.

 

A “similar medicinal product” is defined as a medicinal product containing a similar active substance or substances as contained in an authorized orphan medicinal product, and which is intended for the same therapeutic indication. Orphan drug designation must be requested before submitting an application for marketing approval. Orphan drug designation does not convey any advantage in, or shorten the duration of, the regulatory review and approval process.

 

An equivalent regime is reflected in domestic law in the UK. Under the UK regime, however, orphan designations are not granted and instead a decision is made at the point of marketing authorization grant.

RLYB211 and RLYB212 have each been granted orphan drug designation by the EMA for the prevention of FNAIT.

Priority Medicines Designation

The EMA grants access to the Priority Medicines ("PRIME") program to investigational medicines for which it determines there to be preliminary data available showing the potential to address an unmet medical need and bring a major therapeutic advantage to patients. As part of the program, EMA provides early and enhanced dialogue and support to optimize the development of eligible medicines and speed up their evaluation, aiming to bring promising treatments to patients sooner. Rallybio anticipates that it will request PRIME designation for certain of our product candidates.

Periods of Authorization and Renewals

A marketing authorization is valid for five years in principle and the marketing authorization may be renewed after five years on the basis of a re-evaluation of the risk-benefit balance by the EMA or by the competent authority of the authorizing member state. To this end, the marketing authorization holder must provide the EMA or the competent authority with a consolidated version of the file in respect of quality, safety and efficacy, including all variations introduced since the marketing authorization was granted, at least nine months before the marketing authorization ceases to be valid. Once renewed, the marketing authorization is generally valid for an unlimited period, unless the European Commission or the competent authority decides, on justified grounds relating to pharmacovigilance, to proceed with one additional five-year renewal. Any authorization which is not followed by the actual placing of the drug on the EU market (in case of centralized procedure) or on the market of the authorizing member state within three years after authorization ceases to be valid (the so-called sunset clause).

Rest of the World Regulation

For other countries outside of the EU and the United States, such as countries in Eastern Europe, Latin America or Asia, the requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials, product licensing, pricing and reimbursement vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Additionally, the clinical trials must be conducted in accordance with cGCP requirements and the applicable regulatory requirements and the ethical principles that have their origin in the Declaration of Helsinki.

If we fail to comply with applicable foreign regulatory requirements, we may be subject to, among other things, fines, suspension or withdrawal of regulatory approvals, product recalls, seizure of products, operating restrictions, and criminal prosecution.

Coverage, Pricing and Reimbursement

Sales of any biopharmaceutical products, if and when approved by the FDA or analogous authorities outside the United States, will depend in significant part on the availability of third-party coverage and reimbursement for the products.

In the United States, third-party payors include government healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid, private health insurers, managed care plans and other organizations. These third-party payors are increasingly

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challenging the price and examining the cost-effectiveness of medical products and services, including biopharmaceutical products. Significant uncertainty exists regarding coverage and reimbursement for newly approved healthcare products. Coverage does not ensure adequate reimbursement. It is time consuming and expensive to seek coverage and reimbursement from third-party payors. We may need to conduct expensive pharmacoeconomic studies to demonstrate the medical necessity and cost-effectiveness of our products, in addition to the costs required to obtain FDA regulatory approvals. Third-party payors may take into account clinical practice guidelines in determining coverage and there may be significant delays before our products are addressed by such guidelines and we cannot predict what position such guidelines would take with respect to our products if and when addressed. Third-party payors may limit coverage to specific products on an approved list, or formulary, which might not include all of the approved products for a particular indication, or utilize other mechanisms to manage utilization (such as requiring prior authorization for coverage for a product for use in a particular patient). Limits on coverage may impact demand for our products. Even if coverage is obtained, third-party reimbursement may not be adequate to allow us to sell our products on a competitive and profitable basis. As result, we may not be able to maintain price levels high enough to realize an appropriate return on investment in product development.

In addition, in some foreign countries, the proposed pricing for a drug must be approved before it may be lawfully marketed. The requirements governing drug pricing vary widely from country to country. Some countries provide that drug products may be marketed only after a reimbursement price has been agreed. Some countries may require the completion of additional studies that compare the cost-effectiveness of our product candidate to currently available therapies (so called health technology assessment ("HTA") in order to obtain reimbursement or pricing approval). For example, subject to the requirements set out in Directive 89/105/EEC relating to the transparency of measures regulating the pricing of medicinal products for human use and their inclusion in the scope of national health insurance systems, EU Member States have the legal competence to set national measures of an economic nature on the marketing of medicinal products in order to control public health expenditure on such products. Accordingly, EU Member States can restrict the range of medicinal products for which their national health insurance systems provide reimbursement and to control the prices of medicinal products for human use. An EU Member State may approve a specific price for the medicinal product or it may instead adopt a system of direct or indirect controls on the profitability of the company placing the medicinal product on the market. Other EU Member States allow companies to fix their own prices for drug products but monitor and control prescription volumes and issue guidance to physicians to limit prescriptions. There can be no assurance that any country that has price controls or reimbursement limitations for pharmaceutical products will allow favorable reimbursement and pricing arrangements for any of our products. Historically, products launched in the EU do not follow price structures of the United States and generally tend to be significantly lower.

The downward pressure on health care costs in general, particularly prescription drugs, has become intense. As a result, increasingly high barriers are being erected to the entry of new products. In addition, there can be considerable pressure by governments and other stakeholders on prices and reimbursement levels, including as part of cost containment measures. Political, economic, and regulatory developments may further complicate pricing negotiations, and pricing negotiations may continue after reimbursement has been obtained. Reference pricing used by various EU Member States and parallel import or distribution (arbitrage between low-priced and high-priced member states) can further reduce prices. Any country that has price controls or reimbursement limitations for drug products may not allow favorable reimbursement and pricing arrangements.

Other U.S. Health Care Laws and Regulations

In the United States, biopharmaceutical manufacturers and their products are subject to extensive regulation at the federal and state level, such as laws intended to prevent fraud and abuse in the healthcare industry. These laws, some of which will apply only if and when we have an approved product, include:

federal false claims, false statements and civil monetary penalties laws prohibiting, among other things, any person from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false claim for payment of government funds or knowingly making, or causing to be made, a false statement to get a false claim paid;
federal healthcare program anti-kickback law, which prohibits, among other things, persons from offering, soliciting, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, to induce either the referral of an individual for, or the purchasing or ordering of, a good or service for which payment may be made under federal healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid;

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the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 ("HIPAA") which, in addition to privacy protections applicable to healthcare providers and other entities, prohibits executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or making false statements relating to healthcare matters;
FDCA, which among other things, strictly regulates drug marketing, prohibits manufacturers from marketing such products prior to approval or for off-label use and regulates the distribution of samples;
federal laws that require pharmaceutical manufacturers to report certain calculated product prices to the government or provide certain discounts or rebates to government authorities or private entities, often as a condition of reimbursement under government healthcare programs;
federal Open Payments (or federal “sunshine” law), which requires pharmaceutical and medical device companies to monitor and report certain financial interactions with certain healthcare providers to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ("CMS") for re-disclosure to the public, as well as ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members;
federal consumer protection and unfair competition laws, which broadly regulate marketplace activities and activities that potentially harm consumers;
analogous state laws and regulations, including: state anti-kickback and false claims laws; state laws requiring pharmaceutical companies to comply with specific compliance standards, restrict financial interactions between pharmaceutical companies and healthcare providers or report information related to payments to health care providers, marketing expenditures or drug prices; and state laws governing privacy, security and breaches of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts; and
laws and regulations prohibiting bribery and corruption, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended (the "FCPA") which, among other things, prohibits U.S. companies and their employees and agents from authorizing, promising, offering, or providing, directly or indirectly, corrupt or improper payments or anything else of value to foreign government officials, employees of public international organizations or foreign government-owned or affiliated entities, candidates for foreign public office, and foreign political parties or officials thereof.

Ensuring compliance is time consuming and costly. Violations of the laws may be subject to criminal and/or civil sanctions, including, in some instances, exclusion from participation in federal and state health care programs, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

Similar healthcare laws and regulations exist in the EU and other jurisdictions, including reporting requirements detailing interactions with and payments to healthcare providers and laws governing the privacy and security of personal information.

Health Care Reform in the United States and Potential Changes to Health Care Laws

Health care reform has been a significant trend in the U.S. health care industry and elsewhere. In particular, government authorities and other third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medical products and services. Under the Trump administration, there were efforts to repeal or modify prior health care reform legislation and regulation and to implement new health care reform measures, including measures related to payment for drugs under government health care programs. The Biden administration has also focused on health care reform, specifically reforms that would address the high cost of drugs.

There has been heightened governmental scrutiny in recent years over the manner in which manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which has resulted in proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to product pricing and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for pharmaceutical and biologic products. At the state level, individual states are increasingly passing legislation and implementing regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. These measures could reduce the ultimate demand for our products, once approved, or put pressure on our product pricing.

We cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative or executive action, either in the United States or abroad. We expect that additional federal and

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state health care reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for health care products and services.

For a more detailed discussion of health care reform in the U.S., see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Healthcare Laws and Other Legal Compliance Matters.”

Data Privacy Regulation

U.S. Privacy Law

There are numerous U.S. federal and state laws and regulations related to the privacy and security of personal information, including laws requiring the safeguarding of personal information and laws requiring notification to governmental authorities and data subjects as well as remediation in the event of a data breach.

There have been several developments in recent years with respect to U.S. state data privacy laws. In 2018, California passed into law the California Consumer Privacy Act (the "CCPA"), which took effect on January 1, 2020 and imposed many requirements on businesses that process the personal information of California residents. Many of the CCPA’s requirements are similar to those found in the General Data Protection Regulation (the "GDPR"), including requiring businesses to provide notice to data subjects regarding the personal information collected about them and how such information is used and shared, and providing data subjects the right to request access to such personal information and, in certain cases, request the erasure of such personal information. The CCPA also affords California residents the right to opt-out of “sales” of their personal information. The CCPA contains significant penalties for companies that violate its requirements. It also provides California residents a private right of action, including the ability to seek statutory damages, in the event of a breach involving their personal information. Compliance with the CCPA is a rigorous and time-intensive process that may increase the cost of doing business or require companies to change their business practices to ensure full compliance. On November 3, 2020, California voters passed a ballot initiative for the California Privacy Rights Act (the "CPRA"), which significantly expands the CCPA to incorporate additional GDPR-like provisions including requiring that the use, retention and sharing of personal information of California residents be reasonably necessary and proportionate to the purposes of collection or processing, granting additional protections for sensitive personal information, and requiring greater disclosures related to notice to residents regarding retention of information. The CPRA also expands personal information rights of California residents, including creating a right to opt out of sharing of personal information with third parties for advertising, expanding the lookback period for the right to know about personal information held by businesses, and expanding the right to erasure for information held by third parties. Most CPRA provisions took effect on January 1, 2023, though the obligations apply to any personal information collected after January 1, 2022, with enforcement scheduled to begin on July 1, 2023. Similar laws have been proposed or passed at the U.S. federal and state level, including the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act, which took effect on January 1, 2023, the Colorado Consumer Protection Act, which will take effect on July 1, 2023, the Connecticut Data Privacy Act, which will take effect on July 1, 2023,and the Utah Consumer Privacy Act, which will take effect on December 31, 2023. New data privacy laws have been proposed in more than half of the states in the United States and in the U.S. Congress, reflecting a trend toward more stringent privacy legislation in the United States, which trend may accelerate under the current U.S. presidential administration. Compliance with evolving U.S. privacy and security laws, requirements and regulations may result in cost increases due to necessary systems changes, new limitations or constraints on our business models and the development of new administrative processes.

GDPR

Many countries outside of the United States maintain rigorous laws governing the privacy and security of personal information. The collection, use, disclosure, transfer, or other processing of personal data, including personal health data, regarding individuals who are located in the EEA, and the processing of personal data that takes place in the EEA, is subject to the GDPR, which became effective on May 25, 2018. The GDPR is wide-ranging in scope and imposes numerous requirements on companies that process personal data, and it imposes heightened requirements on companies that process health and other sensitive data, such as requiring in many situations that a company obtain the consent of the individuals to whom the sensitive personal data relate before processing such data. Examples of obligations imposed by the GDPR on companies processing personal data that fall within the scope of the GDPR include providing information to individuals regarding data processing activities, implementing safeguards to protect the security and confidentiality of personal data, appointing a data protection officer, providing notification of data breaches and taking certain measures when engaging third-party processors. The GDPR also imposes strict rules on the transfer of personal data to countries outside the EEA, including the United States, and permits data protection authorities to impose large penalties for violations of the GDPR, including potential fines of up to €20 million, or 4% of annual global revenues, whichever is greater. The GDPR

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also confers a private right of action on data subjects and consumer associations to lodge complaints with supervisory authorities, seek judicial remedies, and obtain compensation for damages resulting from violations of the GDPR. Compliance with the GDPR is a rigorous and time-intensive process that may increase the cost of doing business or require companies to change their business practices to ensure full compliance. In July 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union (the "CJEU"), invalidated the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield framework, one of the mechanisms used to legitimize the transfer of personal data from the EEA to the United States. The CJEU decision also drew into question the long-term viability of an alternative means of data transfer, the standard contractual clauses, for transfers of personal data from the EEA to the United States. On June 4, 2021, the European Commission released two revised sets of standard contractual clauses, which have been designed in part to assist organizations in meeting the requirement of the CJEU’s judgment. However, it is unclear how the use of these clauses will be scrutinized and enforced by supervisory authorities and privacy interest groups, and the process of entering into agreements with new standard contractual clauses, and updating our existing agreements that contain the previous clauses, may lead to additional costs and increase our overall risk exposure. Following the withdrawal of the U.K. from the EU, the U.K. Data Protection Act 2018 applies to the processing of personal data that takes place in the U.K. and includes parallel obligations to those set forth by GDPR.

Employees and Human Capital Resources

Our employees are driven by our mission to identify and accelerate the development of transformative therapies for patients with rare disorders. We believe that our deep commitment to high ethical and professional standards is fundamental to our mission, and we are determined to build a culture that values diversity, inclusiveness and equity, and empowers a skilled and experienced workforce to perform at the highest levels. We commit our resources and make investments, including through recruiting, training and collaboration, to promote the culture that we desire, and we expect our employees to embrace the Company’s values and culture in all that we do.

As of December 31, 2022, we employed 41 full-time employees. Of our full-time employees, 23 employees are engaged in new product sourcing through business development, research, manufacturing, product development and clinical development, and 18 are engaged in executive, finance, human resources, legal and other administrative functions. None of our employees are represented by a labor union or covered by a collective bargaining agreement. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good.

Our human capital resources objectives include, as applicable, identifying, recruiting, retaining, incentivizing and integrating our existing and new employees, advisors and consultants while ensuring fair and equitable systems and incentives to our employee base. The principal purposes of our equity and cash incentive plans are to attract, retain and reward personnel through the granting of stock-based and cash-based incentive awards, in order to increase stockholder value and the success of the Company by motivating such individuals to perform to the best of their abilities and achieve our objectives. We offer a benefits program that provides resources to help employees manage their health, finances and life outside of work.
 

Corporate Information and Reorganization

Rallybio Holdings, LLC ("Rallybio Holdings") was formed in Delaware in March 2018 and Rallybio IPD, LLC was formed in Delaware in May 2020. On June 30, 2021, Rallybio IPD, LLC was converted into a Delaware corporation and changed its name to Rallybio Corporation.

 

Our principal executive offices are located at 234 Church Street, Suite 1020, New Haven, CT 06510 and our telephone number is (203) 859-3820. Our corporate website address is https://www.rallybio.com. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not incorporated by reference into this report and you should not consider information contained on or accessible through our website to be part of this report.

 

Prior to the IPO and the Reorganization, the Company was a 100% owned subsidiary of Rallybio Holdings and Rallybio Holdings held 100% of the outstanding membership units in five wholly-owned subsidiaries; Rallybio, LLC, Rallybio IPA, LLC, Rallybio IPB, LLC, Rallybio IPD, LLC, and IPC Research, LLC. On June 30, 2021, Rallybio Holdings completed a series of transactions pursuant to which (i) Rallybio IPD, LLC, a direct subsidiary of Rallybio Holdings, was converted from a Delaware limited liability company to a Delaware corporation and changed its name to Rallybio Corporation, and (ii) four direct subsidiaries of Rallybio Corporation, each a Delaware limited liability company (collectively the "Merger Subs"), each consummated a separate merger with one of Rallybio Holdings direct subsidiaries, other than Rallybio IPD, LLC (collectively the "Asset Subsidiaries"), with the Asset Subsidiaries surviving the mergers and Rallybio Holdings receiving common stock of the Company in exchange for its interest in each Asset Subsidiary, which resulted in the Asset Subsidiaries becoming

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subsidiaries of the Company and the Company becoming the only direct subsidiary of Rallybio Holdings. On July 28, 2021, immediately prior to the completion of the IPO, Rallybio Holdings liquidated and distributed 100% of the capital stock of the Company, consisting solely of common stock, to the unitholders of Rallybio Holdings. The liquidation of Rallybio Holdings and distribution of the capital stock of Rallybio Corporation to the unitholders of Rallybio Holdings is referred to as the “Liquidation” and these other transactions are collectively referred to as the “Reorganization.” As a result of the liquidation, the unitholders of Rallybio Holdings became the holders of common stock of Rallybio Corporation.

 

Available Information

Our Internet address is www.rallybio.com. Our website and the information contained on, or that can be accessed through, the website will not be deemed to be incorporated by reference in, and are not considered part of, this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, including exhibits, proxy and information statements and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a), 14, and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act”) are available through the “Investors” portion of our website free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). In addition, our filings with the SEC may be accessed through the SEC’s Interactive Data Electronic Applications system at http://www.sec.gov. All statements made in any of our securities filings, including all forward-looking statements or information, are made as of the date of the document in which the statement is included, and we do not assume or undertake any obligation to update any of those statements or documents unless we are required to do so by law.

Item 1A. Risk Factors.

 

You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below together with all of the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our financial statements and related notes appearing in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”. Negative consequences from these risks could harm our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition or cause the trading price of our common stock to decline. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial may also adversely affect our business. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

 

Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Need for Additional Capital

 

We have incurred significant losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur losses in the foreseeable future. We have not commercialized any products and have never generated revenue from the commercialization of any product. We are not currently profitable, and we may never achieve or sustain profitability.

We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company with a limited operating history. As a result, we are not profitable and have incurred significant losses since our formation. We had net losses of $66.7 million and $47.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. As of December 31, 2022, we had an accumulated deficit of $160.7 million. Investment in biopharmaceutical product development is highly speculative because it entails substantial upfront capital expenditures and significant risk that any potential product candidate will fail to gain regulatory approval and become commercially viable. Since inception, we have devoted substantially all of our resources to raising capital, organizing and staffing the Company, business planning, conducting discovery and research activities, acquiring or discovering product candidates, establishing and protecting our intellectual property portfolio, developing and progressing our product candidates and preparing for clinical trials and establishing arrangements with third parties for the manufacture of our product candidates and component materials, including activities relating to our preclinical development and manufacturing activities for each of our programs and our Phase 1 clinical trials for RLYB212 and RLYB116. We do not have any product candidates approved for sale and have not generated any revenue from product sales.

 

We expect to incur significant additional operating losses in the foreseeable future as we advance our programs through preclinical and clinical development, expand our research and development activities, acquire and develop new product candidates, complete preclinical studies and clinical trials, finance our business development strategy, seek regulatory approval for the commercialization of our product candidates and commercialize our products, if approved. The costs of advancing product candidates through each clinical phase tend to increase substantially over the duration of the clinical development process. Therefore, the total costs to

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advance any product candidate to marketing approval in even a single jurisdiction are substantial. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with pharmaceutical product development, we are unable to accurately predict the timing or amount of increased expenses or when, or if, we will be able to begin generating revenue from the commercialization of any product candidates or achieve or maintain profitability. Our expenses will increase substantially if and as we:

advance Phase 1 and Phase1b clinical trials for RLYB212, our lead product candidate for our FNAIT program;
advance Phase 1 and Phase1b clinical trials for RLYB116, and file an IND or a CTA for other product candidates;
advance our natural history alloimmunization study of FNAIT ("FNAIT Natural History Alloimmunization Study"), and other studies to support our development program and related regulatory submissions for RLYB212;
seek regulatory approvals for RLYB212, RLYB116 and any other product candidates, as well as for any related companion diagnostic, if required;
continue our discovery and development activities with Exscientia;
continue to discover and develop additional product candidates;
hire additional clinical, scientific, and commercial personnel;
add operational, financial, and management personnel, including personnel to support our product development and planned future commercialization efforts and to support our transition to a public company;
acquire or in-license other product candidates or technologies;
maintain, expand, and protect our intellectual property portfolio;
secure a commercial manufacturing source and supply chain capacity sufficient to produce commercial quantities of any product candidate for which we obtain regulatory approval; and
establish a sales, marketing, and distribution infrastructure to commercialize our programs, if approved, and for any other product candidates for which we may obtain marketing approval.

 

We do not know when or whether we will become profitable. Our ability to generate revenue and become profitable depends upon our ability to successfully complete the development of our product candidates and to obtain the necessary regulatory approvals for their commercialization, which is subject to substantial additional risks and uncertainties, as described under “— Risks Related to Discovery, Development, Clinical Testing, Manufacturing, and Regulatory Approval.” Each of our product candidates will require additional preclinical and/or clinical development, regulatory approval in multiple jurisdictions, the securing of manufacturing supply, capacity, distribution channels and expertise, the use of external vendors, the building of a commercial organization, substantial investment and significant marketing efforts before we generate any revenue from product sales. As a result, we expect to continue to incur net losses and negative cash flows in the foreseeable future. These net losses and negative cash flows have had, and will continue to have, an adverse effect on our stockholders’ equity and working capital. The amount of our future net losses will depend, in part, on the rate of future growth of our expenses and our ability to generate revenues. If we are unable to develop and commercialize one or more product candidates, either alone or through current or future collaborations, or if revenues from any product that receives marketing approval are insufficient, we will not achieve profitability. Even if we successfully commercialize RLYB212, RLYB116 or any of our other product candidates, we may continue to incur substantial research and development and other expenses to identify and develop other product candidates. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis or meet outside expectations for our profitability. Our failure to become and remain profitable would decrease the value of the Company and could impair our ability to raise capital, maintain our research and development efforts, expand our business, execute our business plan or continue our operations.

We will require significant additional capital to fund our operations, and if we fail to obtain necessary financing, we may not be able to complete the development and commercialization of RLYB212, RLYB116 or any additional product candidates we may develop.

We expect to spend significant amounts of capital to complete the development of, seek regulatory approvals for and, if approved, commercialize RLYB212 and RLYB116. These expenditures will include costs related to our ongoing Phase 1 and Phase 1b clinical trials for RLYB212 and RLYB116. We expect similar expenditures as we

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advance our FNAIT Natural History Alloimmunization Study and development of RLYB331. In addition, we are obligated to make certain milestone and royalty payments in connection with achievement of certain development and commercial milestones as well as the sale of resulting products under our agreements with Prophylix, Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB (Publ) Sobi, Affibody, and Sanofi. We may also spend significant capital to develop laboratory tests, and if required by the FDA or other healthcare agencies, one or more companion diagnostics, to identify patients for inclusion in our clinical trials or who are likely to respond to our product candidates.

 

Based upon our current operating plan, we believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities as of December 31, 2022, will be sufficient to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements into the first quarter of 2025. This estimate and our expectation to advance the preclinical and clinical development of RLYB212, RLYB116 and any other product candidates are based on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could exhaust our available capital resources sooner than we expect, or our clinical trials may be more expensive, time consuming or difficult to design or implement than we currently anticipate. Changing circumstances, including any unanticipated expenses, could cause us to consume capital significantly faster than we currently anticipate, and we may need to spend more than currently expected because of circumstances beyond our control. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties, the length of time and scope of activities associated with development of RLYB212, RLYB116 or any product candidate we may develop is highly uncertain, we are unable to estimate the actual amount of funds we will require for development, approval and any approved marketing and commercialization activities. Our future capital requirements, both near and long-term, will depend on many factors, including, but not limited to:

the initiation, progress, timing, costs and results of our clinical trials through all phases of development, including our ongoing Phase 1 and Phase 1b clinical trials for RLYB212 and RLYB116, and the development of any other product candidates;
the identification, assessment, acquisition and/or development of additional research programs and additional product candidates;
the outcome, timing and cost of meeting regulatory requirements established by the FDA, the EMA, and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities, including any additional clinical trials required by the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities;
the willingness of the FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities to accept our clinical trial designs, as well as data from our completed and planned preclinical studies and clinical trials, as the basis for review and approval of RLYB212, RLYB116 and any other product candidates;
the progress, timing and costs of the development by us or third parties of companion diagnostics, if required, for RLYB212 or any other product candidates, including design, manufacturing and regulatory approval;
the cost of filing, prosecuting, and enforcing our patent claims and other intellectual property rights;
the cost of defending potential intellectual property disputes, including patent infringement actions brought by third parties against us;
the costs associated with potential clinical trial liability or product liability claims, including the costs associated with obtaining insurance against such claims and with defending against such claims;
the effect of competing technological and market developments;
our ability to develop and commercialize products that are considered medically and/or financially differentiated to competitive products by physicians, patients and payers;
the cost and timing of completion of commercial-scale manufacturing activities;
the cost of making royalty, milestone or other payments under any future in-license agreements;
our ability to maintain our collaborations with Exscientia and AbCellera on favorable terms and establish new collaborations;
the extent to which we in-license or acquire additional product candidates or technologies;
the severity, duration and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, which may adversely impact our business;
the cost of establishing sales, marketing and distribution capabilities for our product candidates, if approved;

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the initiation, progress and timing of our commercialization of RLYB212 and RLYB116, if approved, or any other product candidates;
the availability of third-party coverage and reimbursement for and pricing of any approved products; and
the costs of operating as a public company.

 

We will require significant additional capital to advance the development and potential commercialization of our product candidates, which we may raise through equity offerings, debt financings, marketing and distribution arrangements and other collaborations, strategic alliances and licensing arrangements or other sources. Depending on our business performance, the economic climate and market conditions, we may be unable to raise additional funds when needed on acceptable terms, or at all. Moreover, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic continue and uncertain geopolitical events, such as the war in Ukraine, have impacted the global economy, and a severe or prolonged economic downturn could result in a variety of challenges for our business, including disruptions in the financial markets, which could adversely impact our ability to raise additional capital when needed or on acceptable terms, if at all. If we do not succeed in raising additional funds on acceptable terms, we may need to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development of one or more of our product candidates or the commercialization of any product that may be approved for marketing, and we could be forced to discontinue operations. In addition, attempting to secure additional financing may divert the time and attention of our management from day-to-day activities and harm our product candidate development efforts.

Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidates.

Until such time, if ever, as we generate significant revenue from product sales, we expect to finance our operations through the sale of equity, debt financings, marketing and distribution arrangements and collaborations, strategic alliances and licensing arrangements or other sources. We do not currently have any committed external source of funds. In addition, we may seek additional capital due to favorable market conditions or strategic considerations, even if we believe that we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans.

 

To the extent that we raise additional capital through the future sale of equity or convertible debt securities, including sales of our common stock pursuant to our Sales Agreement with Cowen and Company LLC ("Cowen"), dated August 8, 2022 (the "Sales Agreement"), each shareholder's ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect their rights as a common stockholder. In addition, debt financing and preferred equity financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends. If we raise additional funds through debt financing, we may be subject to covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends, and we may need to dedicate a substantial additional portion of any operating cash flows to the payment of principal and interest on such indebtedness. Any future indebtedness, combined with our other financial obligations, could increase our vulnerability to adverse changes in general economic, industry and market conditions, limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry and impose a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt or better debt servicing options. If we raise additional funds through collaborations, strategic alliances or marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may be required to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, intellectual property, future revenue streams or product candidates or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to raise additional funds when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate product candidate development or future commercialization efforts.

We have a limited operating history and no history of commercializing pharmaceutical products, which may make it difficult to evaluate the prospects for our future viability.

Rallybio was founded in January 2018 and our operations to date have been limited to financing and staffing the Company, identifying, evaluating and acquiring or in-licensing product candidates and technologies, conducting preclinical studies and our clinical trials for RLYB211, RLYB212 and RLYB116, and preclinical studies for RLYB211, RLYB212, RLYB116, RLYB114, and RLYB331, and developing a pipeline of other preclinical and research programs. We have not yet demonstrated the ability to complete successfully a large-scale, pivotal clinical trial, obtain marketing approval, manufacture a commercial-scale product, or arrange for a third-party to do so on our behalf, or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful product commercialization. Consequently, predictions about our future success or viability may not be as accurate as they could be if we had

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a longer operating history or a history of successfully developing, obtaining marketing approval for and commercializing pharmaceutical products.

 

In addition, as a business with a limited operating history, we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other known and unknown challenges. We will eventually need to transition from a company with a research and development focus to a company capable of supporting commercial activities. We may not be successful in such a transition and, as a result, our business may be adversely affected.

Our quarterly and annual financial results may fluctuate, which makes our results difficult to predict and may cause our results to fall short of expectations.

Our financial condition and operating results have varied in the past and will continue to fluctuate from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year in the future due to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. Factors relating to our business that may contribute to these fluctuations include the following, as well as other factors described elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K:

variations in the level of expense related to the ongoing development of our product candidates or research pipeline;
delays or failures in advancement of existing or future product candidates into the clinic or in clinical trials;
the feasibility of developing, manufacturing and commercializing our product candidates;
our relationships, and any associated exclusivity terms, with strategic collaborators;
our execution of any additional collaboration, licensing or similar arrangements, and the timing of payments we may make or receive under existing or future arrangements, or the termination or modification of any such existing or future arrangements;
our operation in a net loss position in the foreseeable future;
our ability, ourselves or with collaborators, to develop a companion diagnostic, if required, and obtain marketing approval;
our ability to consistently manufacture our product candidates, including in sufficient quantities for clinical or commercial purposes;
our dependence on, and the need to attract and retain, key management and other personnel;
developments or disputes concerning patents or other proprietary rights, litigation matters and our ability to obtain and maintain patent protection for our product candidates;
strategic decisions by us or our competitors, such as acquisitions, divestitures, spin-offs, joint ventures, strategic investments or changes in business strategy;
if any of our product candidates receives regulatory approval, the terms of such approval and market acceptance and demand for such product candidates;
business interruptions such as power outages, strikes, civil unrest, wars, acts of terrorism or natural disasters;
potential advantages that our competitors and potential competitors may have in developing and commercializing competing technologies or products, securing funding for or obtaining the rights to critical intellectual property;
regulatory developments affecting our product candidates or those of our competitors; and
our ability to use our net operating loss ("NOL") and income tax credit carryforwards to offset income tax.

 

Due to these and other factors, the results of any of our prior quarterly or annual periods should not be relied upon as indications of our future operating performance, and a period-to-period comparison of our results of operations may not be a meaningful indication of our future performance. In any particular quarter or quarters, our operating results could be below the expectations of securities analysts or investors, which could cause our stock price to decline.

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Our ability to use our net operating loss and income tax credit carryforwards to offset future income tax liabilities may be subject to certain limitations.

We have incurred substantial NOLs during our history. To the extent that we continue to generate taxable losses, unused losses will carry forward and can be used to offset future taxable income, if any, until such unused losses expire. NOLs generated in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 are not subject to expiration. Federal NOLs generated in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 generally may not be carried back to prior taxable years except that, under the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”), federal NOLs generated in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2021 may be carried back to each of the five taxable years preceding the taxable year in which the loss arises. Additionally, the deduction for NOLs arising in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 is generally limited to 80% of current year taxable income, however, as a result of the CARES Act, for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2021, the deductibility of federal NOLs generated in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 is not so limited. We also have substantial federal and state research and development and other tax credit carryforwards. These tax credit carryforwards could expire unused and be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities. In addition, in general, under Sections 382 and 383 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, (the “Code”), a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” is subject to limitations on its ability to use its pre-change NOLs and tax credit carryforwards to offset future taxable income. For these purposes, an ownership change generally occurs where the aggregate stock ownership of one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders who owns at least 5% of a corporation’s stock increases its ownership by more than 50 percentage points over its lowest ownership percentage within a specified testing period. Some of our historical NOLs may be subject to annual limitations on our ability to use them due to prior ownership changes. Additionally, we may experience such ownership changes in the future as a result of future transactions in our stock, some of which may be outside our control. If we undergo an ownership change, our ability to use our NOLs and income tax credit carryforwards could be further limited. For these reasons, we may not be able to use a material portion of our NOLs or tax credit carryforwards, even if we attain profitability.

 

Risks Related to Discovery, Development, Clinical Testing, Manufacturing, and Regulatory Approval

 

We are heavily dependent on the success of RLYB212 and RLYB116, which are in early-stage clinical development. If we are not able to develop, obtain regulatory approval for, or successfully commercialize our product candidates, or if we experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.

Our lead programs are in early-stage clinical development and we do not currently have any commercial products that generate revenues or any other sources of revenue. To date, we have invested a significant portion of our efforts and financial resources in the development of RLYB212 for the prevention of FNAIT and the development of RLYB116. Our future success is substantially dependent on our ability to successfully complete preclinical and clinical development for, obtain regulatory approval for, and successfully commercialize, our product candidates, which may never occur. We currently have no products that are approved for commercial sale and may never be able to develop a marketable product.

 

In addition, we have received approval for two CTAs in for RLYB212. In the first quarter of 2023, we announced proof-of-concept in the Phase 1b study for RLYB212. Any delays in the advancement of our clinical trials for RLYB212 could impact our product development timelines, result in increased costs, affect our ability to obtain marketing approval for RLYB212 according to our plans, and delay commercialization.

 

Before obtaining regulatory approvals for the commercial sale of our product candidates, we must demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our investigational product candidates for use in each target indication through lengthy, complex and expensive preclinical studies and clinical trials. Failure can occur at any time during the preclinical study and clinical trial processes, and, because our product candidates are in an early stage of development, there is a high risk of failure, and we may never succeed in developing marketable products.

Our ability to generate product revenue will depend heavily on the successful development and eventual commercialization of our product candidates, which may never occur. Ongoing and future preclinical studies and clinical trials of our product candidates may not show sufficient safety or efficacy or be of sufficient quality to obtain or maintain regulatory approvals. There can be no assurance that any of our product candidates, even if approved, will prove to be commercially viable therapeutics.

 

RLYB212 and RLYB116 are designed for subcutaneous self-administration. The formulation or physical properties of RLYB212 and RLYB116 may ultimately be determined to be inadequate to support this route of administration. If subcutaneous administration is not feasible, then we may need to identify additional formulations

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or routes of administration, which could delay initiation of our clinical trials or commercialization and result in significant additional costs. Further, alternative formulations and routes of administration may be required to differentiate our product candidates from competitors and/or secure access to support successful commercialization.

 

Commercialization of product candidates we may develop will require additional preclinical and clinical development; regulatory and marketing approval in multiple jurisdictions, including by the FDA and the EMA; obtaining manufacturing supply, capacity and expertise; building of a commercial organization; and significant marketing efforts. The success of our most advanced product candidates and other product candidates will depend on several factors, including the following:

successful and timely initiation of preclinical studies, and successful and timely initiation of, enrollment in, and completion of our clinical trials with results that support a finding of safety and effectiveness and an acceptable risk-benefit profile of our product candidates in the intended populations within the timeframes we have projected;
regulatory grants of authorization to proceed under INDs or CTAs such that we can commence planned or future clinical trials of our product candidates;
sufficiency of our financial and other resources to complete the necessary preclinical studies and clinical trials;
receipt of regulatory approvals from applicable regulatory authorities for our product candidates, and if required, in vitro diagnostic devices including companion diagnostics;
our ability to successfully utilize certain delivery systems, such as pre-filled syringes ("PFSs") pen-injectors and/or autoinjectors, for certain of our product candidates and to obtain regulatory approval of any such drug/device combination product;
the outcome, timing, and cost of meeting regulatory requirements, including any post-marketing commitments, established by the FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities;
establishing commercially viable arrangements with third-party manufacturers for clinical supply and commercial manufacturing;
obtaining and maintaining patent and trade secret protection and regulatory exclusivity for our product candidates;
establishing sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, whether alone or through a collaboration, to support commercialization of our product candidates, if and when approved;
acceptance of the product candidates, if and when approved, by patients, the medical community and third-party payors;
effectively differentiating and competing with other therapies approved and/or used for the same indications as our product candidates, particularly RLYB116;
establishing appropriate prices for any product candidates that receive regulatory approval that reflect the value that the product candidates offer in the indications for which they are approved;
obtaining and maintaining third-party coverage and reimbursement;
enforcing and defending intellectual property rights and claims; and
maintaining an acceptable safety profile of the product candidates following approval.

 

If we do not achieve one or more of these factors in a timely manner or at all, we could experience significant delays or an inability to commercialize our product candidates successfully, which would materially harm our business. Due to the uncertain and time-consuming clinical development and regulatory approval process, we may not successfully develop any of our product candidates and may choose to discontinue the development of any of our product candidates. If we discontinue development of a product candidate, we will not receive anticipated revenues from that product candidate and we may not receive any return on our investment in that product candidate. We may discontinue a product candidate for clinical reasons if it does not prove to be safe and effective for its targeted indications. During clinical development, companies in our field often need to discontinue the development of product candidates if such product candidates do not achieve the necessary efficacy at tolerated doses required for patient benefit. In addition, there may be important facts about the safety, efficacy

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and risk versus benefit of our product candidates that are not known to us at this time. Any unexpected safety events or our failure to generate sufficient data in our clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy may cause a product candidate to fail clinical development. Furthermore, even if that product candidate meets its safety and efficacy endpoints, we may discontinue its development for various reasons, such as changes in the competitive environment or the standard of care and the prioritization of our resources.

The COVID-19 pandemic in the United States and other countries has resulted in and may further result in disruptions to our preclinical studies, clinical trials, manufacturing and other business operations, which could adversely affect our business and the market price of our common stock.

The global COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact worldwide economic activity, particularly economic activity in the United States, and poses a continued risk that we or our employees, contractors, suppliers, or other partners may be prevented from or delayed in conducting business activities for an indefinite period of time, including due to shutdowns, quarantines and other public health measures that may be requested or mandated by governmental authorities. The continued prevalence of COVID-19 and the measures taken by the governments of countries affected could disrupt the supply chain and the manufacture or shipment of both drug substance and finished drug product for our product candidates for preclinical testing or clinical trials, cause diversion of healthcare resources away from the conduct of preclinical and clinical trial matters to focus on pandemic concerns, limit travel in a manner that interrupts key trial activities, such as trial site initiations and monitoring, delay regulatory filings with regulatory agencies in affected areas or adversely affect our ability to obtain or timing to obtain regulatory approvals. These actions have in the past, continue to and could in the future negatively affect our preclinical studies, clinical trials, manufacturing and other business operations, including:

Preclinical studies and clinical trials: The continued impact of COVID-19 may cause delays and disruptions to some of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, which could include a slow down in enrollment and more difficult or intermittent collection of data for patients enrolled in trials as a result of healthcare provider response to COVID-19. In addition, some participants and clinical investigators may be unable or unwilling to comply with clinical trial protocols. We initiated a global natural history study for FNAIT in September 2021 that requires screening a large number of potential participants, as well as clinical trials for RLYB212 and RLYB116, and we could experience delays in screening due to COVID-19. Significant delays or disruptions to our preclinical studies or clinical trials could adversely affect our ability to timely initiate studies, conduct successful studies, generate scientifically robust clinical data, obtain regulatory approvals or commercialize our product candidates.
Manufacturing and supply: We have encountered only limited disruptions to our manufacturing and supply chain as a result of COVID-19 to date, which have not had a material adverse impact on our business, but significant or prolonged disruptions could materially impact our business, operations or financial results. Even if our manufacturing operations are not materially disrupted, pandemic-related disruptions in other businesses, such as shipping and logistics companies, could affect the availability of our product candidates for our preclinical studies and clinical trials.
Operations: In accordance with direction from state and local government authorities to protect the health of our employees, their families, and our communities, we made several changes to our operations in response to COVID-19. This response included performing office-based work outside of the office. Our increased reliance on personnel working from home may negatively impact productivity or disrupt, delay or otherwise adversely impact our business. In addition, remote working could increase our cyber security risk. Government authorities could impose further restrictions, including mandated shutdown of businesses, which may negatively affect our operations.
Stock Price: The extent and duration of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our stock price is uncertain. The COVID-19 pandemic may cause our stock price to be more volatile, and our ability to raise capital could be impaired.

 

If global health concerns prevent the FDA or other regulatory authorities from conducting their regular inspections, reviews or other regulatory activities, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We continue to monitor the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and financial statements. To date, we have not incurred impairment losses in the carrying values of our assets as a result of the pandemic and we are not aware of any specific related event or circumstance that would require us to revise our estimates reflected in our financial statements.

 

We cannot be certain what the overall impact of the COVID-19 pandemic will be on our business and prospects. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will directly or indirectly impact our business, results of operations,

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financial condition and liquidity, including planned and future clinical trials and research and development costs, will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain.

We may not be successful in our efforts to identify additional product candidates. Due to our limited resources and access to capital, we must prioritize development of certain product candidates, the choice of which may prove to be wrong and adversely affect our business.

An important component of our strategy is expanding our pipeline through partnering, acquiring or in-licensing additional product candidates that target validated biology. We also seek to identify and develop product candidates under our joint venture with Exscientia and our strategic alliance with AbCellera. If we fail to identify additional potential product candidates, or fail to partner, acquire or in-license additional product candidates, our business could be materially harmed.

 

Research programs to develop additional product candidates require substantial technical, financial, and human resources whether or not they are ultimately successful. Our efforts may initially show promise in identifying potential indications or product candidates, yet fail to yield results for clinical development for several reasons, including:

the research methodology used may not be successful in identifying potential indications or product candidates;
potential product candidates may, after further study, be shown to have harmful or unexpected adverse effects or other characteristics that indicate they are unlikely to be effective drugs; or
it may take greater human and financial resources than we possess to identify additional therapeutic opportunities for our product candidates or to develop suitable potential product candidates through research programs, thereby limiting our ability to develop, diversify, and expand our product portfolio.

 

Because we have limited financial and human resources, we intend to focus initially on research programs and product candidates for a limited set of indications. As a result, we may forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with other product candidates or for other indications that could have greater commercial potential or a greater likelihood of success. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities.

 

Accordingly, there can be no assurance that we will ever be able to identify additional therapeutic opportunities for our product candidates or to develop suitable potential product candidates through internal research programs, which could materially adversely affect our future growth and prospects.

Preclinical studies and clinical trials are expensive, time consuming and difficult to design and implement, and involve uncertain outcomes. Any product candidates that we advance into clinical trials may not achieve favorable results in later clinical trials, if any, or receive marketing approval. We may incur additional costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of our product candidates.

Before obtaining marketing approval from the FDA, EMA or other comparable regulatory authorities for the sale of our product candidates, we must complete preclinical studies and extensive clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our product candidates. To initiate clinical trials for any future product candidates, we must submit the results of preclinical studies to the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities, along with other information, including information about CMC and our proposed clinical trial protocol, as part of an IND or similar regulatory filing that must be accepted by the FDA, EMA or other applicable regulatory authorities before we may proceed with clinical development. In the event that regulators require us to complete additional preclinical studies or we are required to satisfy other regulator requests, such as obtaining alignment on the device regulatory pathway for our FNAIT prevention program, the start of our clinical trials may be delayed or prevented. Even after we receive and incorporate guidance from these regulatory authorities, the FDA, EMA or other regulatory authorities could (i) disagree that we have satisfied their requirements to commence our clinical trial, (ii) change their position on the acceptability of our data, trial design or the clinical endpoints selected, which may require us to complete additional preclinical studies or clinical trials or (iii) impose stricter requirements for approval than we currently expect.

 

We may experience delays in initiating and completing any clinical trials that we intend to conduct, and we do not know whether planned preclinical studies or clinical trials, will begin on time, need to be redesigned, enroll an adequate number of patients on time, or be completed on schedule, or at all. We may experience numerous unforeseen events that could delay or prevent our ability to complete current clinical trials or initiate and complete

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new trials, any of which may delay or prevent us from receiving marketing approval or commercializing our product candidates. These events include, but are not limited to:

the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities requiring us to submit additional data or imposing other requirements before permitting us to commence a trial;
delays in receiving or denial by regulatory agencies of permission to proceed with our planned clinical trials or any other clinical trials we may initiate, or placement of a clinical trial on hold;
negative results from our non-clinical trials or clinical trials;
challenges, delays and cost involved in identifying, recruiting and retaining suitable patients and clinical trial sites in sufficient numbers to participate in clinical trials;
delays in reaching an agreement on acceptable terms with prospective contract research organizations ("CROs") and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;
delays in obtaining IRB approval at each site within the United States, or Independent Ethics Committee ("IEC") approval at sites outside the United States;
delays or problems in analyzing data, or the need for additional analysis or data or the need to enroll additional patients;
failure by us, our CROs, trial sites or investigators to adhere to clinical trial, regulatory, legal or contractual requirements and perform trials in accordance with the FDA’s GCP requirements and trial protocol;
inadequate quantity or quality of product candidate or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials, for example as a result of delays in defining and implementing the manufacturing process for materials used in clinical trials or for the manufacture of larger quantities or other delays or issues arising in the manufacturing of sufficient supply of finished drug product;
problems with designing and readiness of in vitro diagnostic devices, including companion diagnostic testing, if required, and our inability, or that of our collaborators, to develop any required laboratory diagnostic tests or companion diagnostics for RLYB212 or any other product candidate;
lack of adequate funding to continue a clinical trial, including as a result of unanticipated costs or increases in costs of clinical trials;
occurrence of serious adverse events including unexpected serious adverse events, associated with the product candidate or reports from non-clinical or clinical testing of our own or competing therapies that raise safety or efficacy concerns, or delays or failures in addressing patient safety concerns that arise during the course of a trial;
changes in regulatory requirements and guidance that require changes to planned or ongoing preclinical and clinical studies, or the conduct of additional studies; and
difficulties recruiting and retaining employees, consultants or contractors with the required level of expertise.

 

In addition, we could encounter delays if a clinical trial is suspended or terminated by us, the IRBs or IECs of the institutions in which such trials are being conducted, the FDA, EMA or other regulatory authorities, or recommended for termination by a Data and Safety Monitoring Board ("DSMB") for such trial. Such authorities may impose a suspension or termination or recommend an alteration to clinical trials due to several factors, including failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols, the identification of safety issues or adverse side effects, failure to demonstrate a benefit from using a drug, changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions. Furthermore, we rely and will rely on CROs and clinical trial sites to ensure the proper and timely conduct of our clinical trials and, while we have agreements governing their committed activities, we have limited influence over their actual performance, as described in the section titled “— Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties.”

 

Our lead product candidates, RLYB212 and RLYB116, are still in early clinical development and will require the successful completion of one or more registrational clinical trials before we are prepared to submit a BLA for regulatory approval by the FDA. We cannot predict with any certainty if or when we might complete the

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development of RLYB212 or RLYB116, submit a BLA for regulatory approval or whether any such BLA will be approved by the FDA.

 

Principal investigators for our clinical trials could serve as scientific advisors or consultants to us from time to time and receive compensation in connection with such services. Under certain circumstances, we may be required to report some of these relationships to the FDA. The FDA may conclude that a financial relationship between us and a principal investigator has created a conflict of interest or otherwise affected interpretation of a clinical trial. The FDA may therefore question the integrity of the data generated at the applicable clinical trial site, and the utility of the clinical trial itself may be jeopardized. This could result in a delay in approval, or rejection, of our marketing applications by the FDA and may ultimately lead to the denial of marketing approval of our product candidates.

 

If we experience delays in the completion, or termination, of any clinical trial of our product candidates, the commercial prospects of our product candidates will be harmed, and our ability to generate product revenues from any of these product candidates will be delayed or prevented. Moreover, any delays in completing our clinical trials will increase our costs, slow down our product candidate development and approval process and jeopardize our ability to commence product sales and generate revenues. In addition, many of the factors that cause, or lead to, termination or suspension of, or a delay in the commencement or completion of, clinical trials may also ultimately lead to the denial of regulatory approval of our product candidates. Any delays to our clinical trials that occur as a result could shorten any period during which we may have the exclusive right to commercialize our product candidates and our competitors may be able to bring products to market before we do, and the commercial viability of our product candidates could be significantly reduced. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.

Enrollment and retention of patients in clinical trials is an expensive and time-consuming process and could be made more difficult or rendered impossible by multiple factors outside our control, including our focus on rare diseases.

Identifying and qualifying patients to participate in clinical trials of our product candidates is critical to our success. The timely completion of clinical trials in accordance with their protocols depends, among other things, on the speed at which we can recruit eligible patients to participate in testing our product candidates and our ability to enroll a sufficient number of patients who remain in the study until its conclusion. Clinical trial recruitment delays often result in increased costs, delays in advancing product development, delays in testing the effectiveness of technologies, delays in obtaining regulatory approval or termination of clinical trials. We may be unable to enroll a sufficient number of patients to complete any of our clinical trials, including our natural history study for our FNAIT program, and even once enrolled, we may be unable to retain a sufficient number of patients to complete any of our trials.

Patient enrollment and retention in clinical trials depends on many factors, including:

the design of the clinical trial, including the patient eligibility criteria defined in the protocol;
the size and nature of the patient population required for analysis of the trial’s primary endpoints;
the existing body of safety and efficacy data with respect to the product candidate;
the proximity of patients to clinical sites;
our ability to recruit clinical trial investigators with the appropriate competencies and experience;
clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages of the product candidate being studied in relation to other available therapies, including any new drugs or medical devices that may be approved for the indications we are investigating;
competing clinical trials being conducted by other companies or institutions, particularly for RLYB116;
our ability to obtain and maintain patient consents;
the risk that patients enrolled in clinical trials will drop out of the trials before completion; and
other factors we may not be able to control, such as the COVID-19 pandemic that may limit patients, principal investigators or staff, or clinical site availability.

 

Additionally, we may have difficulty identifying and enrolling patients for our planned clinical trials because the conditions for which we plan to evaluate our current product candidates are rare diseases and we anticipate that there will be limited patient pools from which to draw for clinical trials. Further, because screening for many of these diseases is not widely adopted, and because it can be difficult to diagnose these diseases in the absence of

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screening, we may have difficulty finding patients who are eligible to participate in our studies or trials. For example, participants in clinical trials for RLYB212 have the rare HPA-1b/b genotype and we may have difficulty identifying participants for these clinical trials. In addition, our clinical trials for RLYB116 will compete with other clinical trials for product candidates that are currently being tested in clinical trials for PNH and gMG and this competition will reduce the number and types of patients available to us because some patients who might have opted to enroll in our trials may instead opt to enroll in a trial being conducted by one of our competitors. Furthermore, any negative results we may report in clinical trials of any of our product candidates may make it difficult or impossible to recruit and retain patients in other clinical trials of that same or a similar product candidate.

 

Outside of the United States, our ability to initiate, enroll and complete a clinical trial successfully is subject to numerous additional risks, including:

difficulty in establishing or managing relationships with CROs and physicians;
different standards for the conduct of clinical trials;
our inability to locate qualified local consultants, physicians and partners; and
the potential burden of complying with a variety of foreign laws, medical standards and regulatory requirements, including the regulation of pharmaceutical and biotechnology products and treatment.

 

We may not be able to initiate or continue clinical trials required by the FDA, the EMA or other regulatory authorities if we cannot enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients to participate in the clinical trials. If we have difficulty enrolling a sufficient number of patients to conduct our clinical trials as planned, we may need to delay, limit or terminate ongoing or planned clinical trials. Delays or failures in planned patient enrollment or retention may result in increased costs or program delays, which could have a harmful effect on our ability to develop our product candidates or could render further development impossible.

Results of preclinical studies, clinical trials or analyses that we may announce or publish from time to time, may not be indicative of results obtained in later trials, and any interim results we may publish could be different than final results.

The results of preclinical studies, clinical trials or analyses of the results from such trials, may not be predictive of the results of later clinical trials. Product candidates in later clinical trials may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy traits despite having progressed through preclinical studies and prior clinical trials or having shown promising results based on analyses of data from earlier trials. Late-stage clinical trials may include a larger number of patients and could differ in other significant ways from early-stage clinical trials, including changes to inclusion and exclusion criteria, patient population, efficacy endpoints, dosing regimen and statistical design. Our Phase 1b clinical trial for RLYB212 is single blinded, making it difficult to predict how rapid platelet clearance will lead to prevention of alloimmunization in pregnant women at higher risk for FNAIT and whether the results that we have observed and may observe in such trial will be repeated in larger and more advanced clinical trials. A number of companies in the biopharmaceutical industry have suffered significant setbacks in later-stage clinical trials due to lack of efficacy or adverse safety profiles, notwithstanding earlier promising results. In addition, conclusions based on promising data from analyses of clinical results, such as the prospective and post hoc analysis of results may be shown to be incorrect in subsequent clinical trials that have pre-specified end points or may not be considered adequate by regulatory authorities. We believe data from our Phase 1/2 clinical trial of RLYB211 has demonstrated proof-of-concept of our proposed mechanism of action and supported advancing RLYB212 into clinical trials, however, we cannot guarantee that clinical trial results will be similar for RLYB212. Even if we complete later clinical trials as planned, we cannot be certain that their results will support the safety and efficacy requirements sufficient to obtain regulatory approval, and, as a result, our clinical development plans may be materially harmed.

 

In addition, interim, “top-line” and preliminary data from our clinical trials that we announce or publish may change as more patient data become available or as additional analyses are conducted. The data obtained in such clinical trials are subject to additional audit and verification procedures and following such procedures, such interim data could be materially different from the final data.

Any product candidates that we develop or the administration thereof, may cause serious adverse events or undesirable side effects, which may halt their clinical development, delay or prevent marketing approval, or, if approved, require them to be taken off the market, include safety warnings, or otherwise limit their sales.

Adverse events or undesirable side effects caused by any product candidates we develop could cause us or regulatory authorities or IRBs, IECs or DSMBs, where applicable, to interrupt, delay, or halt clinical trials and, if

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we seek approval of any such product candidate, could result in a more restrictive label, imposition of a REMS program by the FDA or the delay or denial of regulatory approval by the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Additionally, the administration process or related procedures associated with our product candidates also may cause adverse side effects. Even if we determine that serious adverse events are unrelated to study treatment, such occurrences could affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled patients to complete the trial. Results of any clinical trial we conduct could reveal a high and unacceptable severity and prevalence of side effects. For example, complement inhibitors have, by design, immunosuppressive effects and, in some cases, may be administered to patients with significantly compromised health. As a result, administration of RLYB116 could make patients more susceptible to infection. The chronic dosing of patients with RLYB116 could lead to an immune response that causes adverse reactions or impairs the activity and/or efficacy. Patients may develop an allergic reaction to the drug and/or develop antibodies directed at RLYB116, or may require immunization with a meningococcal vaccine and prophylactic antibiotics. An immune response that causes adverse reactions or impairs the activity of RLYB116 could cause a delay in or termination of our development plans.

 

Some potential therapeutics that initially showed therapeutic promise in early-stage trials have later been found to cause side effects that prevented their further development. In addition, side effects could affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled patients to complete a trial or result in potential clinical trial or product liability claims. Inadequate training or failures by clinical trial personnel in recognizing or managing the potential side effects of our product candidates could result in patient injury or death. Furthermore, clinical trials by their nature utilize a sample of the potential patient population. With a limited number of subjects and limited duration of exposure, rare and severe side effects of our product candidates or those of our competitors may only be uncovered when a significantly larger number of patients have been exposed to the drug.

If we or others later identify undesirable side effects caused by any product candidate that we develop after the product is approved, several negative consequences could result, which could materially harm our business, including:

regulatory authorities may suspend or withdraw approvals of such product candidate;
regulatory authorities may require additional warnings on the label, limit the approved use of such product candidate, or otherwise restrict distribution or marketing such as through requiring adoption of a REMS program;
we may be required to conduct additional clinical trials;
we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients; and
our reputation may suffer.

 

We cannot predict whether our product candidates will cause toxicities in humans that would preclude or lead to the revocation of regulatory approval based on preclinical studies or early-stage clinical trials. Even if the side effects do not preclude the drug from obtaining or maintaining marketing approval, undesirable side effects may inhibit market acceptance of the approved product due to its tolerability versus other therapies. Any of these events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of a product candidate, if approved, and could significantly harm our business, results of operations, and prospects.

The regulatory approval processes of the FDA, EMA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities, including the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency in the United Kingdom, are lengthy, time- consuming and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for RLYB212, RLYB116 or any of our other product candidates, our business will be substantially harmed.

In the United States, we are not permitted to market a product candidate until we receive approval of a BLA or a NDA from the FDA. The process of obtaining BLA and NDA approval is expensive, often takes many years and can vary substantially based upon the type, complexity and novelty of the products involved. Approval policies or regulations may change, and the FDA and other regulatory authorities have substantial discretion in the approval process, including the ability to delay, limit or deny approval of a product candidate for many reasons. In addition, the FDA may require post-approval clinical trials or studies as a condition of approval, which also may be costly. The FDA approval for a limited indication or approval with required warning language, such as a boxed warning, could significantly impact our ability to successfully market our product candidates. The FDA also may require adoption of a REMS requiring prescriber training, post-market registries, or otherwise restricting the marketing and dissemination of these products. The FDA may inform us that an approved device, including a companion diagnostic, is required to obtain marketing approval of RLYB212. Companion diagnostics are subject to regulation

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as medical devices and must be separately approved for marketing by the FDA. Certain of our product candidates will rely on delivery systems, such as PFSs, pen-injectors and/or autoinjectors, and may ultimately be regulated as a drug/device combination product. Although the FDA and similar foreign regulatory agencies have systems in place for the review and approval of combination products, we may experience delays in the development and commercialization of our product candidates due to regulatory timing constraints and uncertainties in the product development and approval process. Despite the time and expense invested in the clinical development of product candidates, regulatory approval is never guaranteed for our product candidates or a companion diagnostic, if required. Assuming successful clinical development, we intend to seek product approvals in countries outside the United States, including in Europe. As a result, we would be subject to regulation by the EMA, as well as the other regulatory agencies in these countries.

 

Of the large number of drugs in development, only a small percentage successfully complete the regulatory approval processes and are commercialized. This lengthy approval process, as well as the unpredictability of future clinical trial results, may result in our failing to obtain regulatory approval to market our product candidates and we may be forced to abandon our development efforts for our product candidate, which would significantly harm our business, results of operations, and prospects.

 

The time required to obtain approval by the FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities is unpredictable but typically takes many years following the commencement of clinical trials and depends upon numerous factors. In addition, approval policies, regulations, or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during a product candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions. We have not obtained regulatory approval for any product candidate and it is possible that we will never obtain regulatory approval for any product candidate.

 

Prior to obtaining approval to commercialize a product candidate in the United States or abroad, we must demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authority, that such product candidates are safe and effective for their intended uses. Data obtained from preclinical studies and clinical trials are susceptible to varying interpretations, and regulatory authorities may not interpret our data as favorably as we do, which may further delay, limit, or prevent development efforts, clinical trials, or marketing approval. Even if we believe the preclinical or clinical data for our product candidates are sufficient to support approval, such data may not be considered sufficient to support approval by the FDA, EMA and other comparable regulatory authorities.

 

For example, we have proposed to use real-world data from our FNAIT Natural History Alloimmunization Study to support our development program and related regulatory submissions for RLYB212. Specifically, the natural history study data would assist us in assessing the frequency of women at higher risk of FNAIT among women of different racial and ethnic characteristics and the occurrence of HPA-1a alloimmunization in these women. The natural history studies and other real-world evidence we may submit to support applications for marketing approval may not be accepted by the FDA, EMA, or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities.

The FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authority can delay, limit, or deny approval of RLYB212, RLYB116 or any of our other product candidates that we develop or require us to conduct additional preclinical or clinical testing or abandon a program for many reasons, including, but not limited to:

the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with the design or implementation of our clinical trials;
we may be unable to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities that our product candidate is safe and effective for its proposed indication;
serious and unexpected drug-related side effects experienced by participants in our clinical trials or by individuals using drugs similar to our product candidates, or other products containing an active ingredient in our product candidates;
negative or ambiguous results from our clinical trials or results that may not meet the level of statistical significance required by the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities for approval;
the population studied in the clinical trial may not be sufficiently broad or representative to assure safety and efficacy in the full population for which we seek approval;
the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may not accept clinical data from trials which are conducted at clinical facilities or in countries where the standard of care is potentially different from that of the United States or the applicable foreign jurisdiction;

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we may be unable to demonstrate that our product candidate’s clinical and other benefits outweigh its safety risks;
the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials;
the data collected from clinical trials of our product candidates may not be acceptable or sufficient to support the submission of a BLA or NDA or to obtain regulatory approval in the United States or elsewhere, and we may be required to conduct additional clinical trials;
the FDA’s or the applicable foreign regulatory authority’s disagreement regarding the formulation, the labeling, and/or the specifications of our product candidates;
the FDA, EMA, or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require us to obtain clearance or approval of a companion diagnostic test;
additional time may be required to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates because they are combination products;
the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may fail to approve or find deficiencies with the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies; and
the approval policies or regulations of the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.

 

We have never obtained marketing approval for a product candidate. It is possible that the FDA may refuse to accept for substantive review any BLAs or NDAs that we submit for our product candidates or may conclude after review of our data that our applications are insufficient to obtain marketing approval of our product candidates. If the FDA does not accept or approve our BLAs or NDAs for our product candidates, it may require that we conduct additional clinical, preclinical, or manufacturing validation studies and submit that data before it will reconsider our applications. Depending on the extent of these or any other FDA-required studies, approval of any BLA or NDA that we submit may be delayed or prevented, or may require us to expend more resources than we have available. It is also possible that additional studies, if performed and completed, may not be considered sufficient by the FDA to approve our BLA or NDA. Any delay in obtaining, or an inability to obtain, marketing approvals would prevent us from commercializing our product candidates, generating revenues, and achieving and sustaining profitability.

Our product candidates target rare diseases and conditions, and the market opportunities for RLYB212, RLYB116 or any of our other product candidates, if approved, may be smaller than we anticipate. As a result, our commercial opportunity may be limited and because the target populations of our product candidates are for rare diseases, we must be able to successfully identify patients and capture a significant market share to achieve profitability and growth.

Our product candidates target rare diseases and conditions. We are developing RLYB212 for the potential prevention of FNAIT, and we estimate that each year greater than 22,000 pregnancies are at high risk for FNAIT in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, other major European countries and Australia, based on the presence of HLA DRB3*01:01 positive and HPA-1a negative antibody in mothers and HPA-1a positive in the fetus. With respect to RLYB116, we estimate that there are approximately 4,700 patients with PNH and up to 60,000 patients with gMG in the United States. Our projections of the number of eligible patients are based on our beliefs and estimates. These estimates have been derived from a variety of sources, including scientific literature, population statistics and market research, and may prove to be incorrect. Further, new sources may reveal a change in the estimated number of eligible patients, and the number of patients may turn out to be lower than expected. Additionally, the potentially addressable patient population for our current programs or future product candidates may be limited or may not be amenable to treatment with our product candidates, and new patients may become increasingly difficult to identify or gain access to. For example, even if we obtain FDA approval for RLYB212 or RLYB116, the drug may be approved for a target population that is more limited than what we currently anticipate. Furthermore, even if we obtain significant market share for any product candidate, if approved, the potential target populations for our product candidates are for rare diseases, and we may never achieve profitability.

 

Further, in many cases there are either no or limited screening or diagnostic tests for the indications our product candidates are being developed to potentially treat. For example, the successful prevention of FNAIT in mothers at risk for developing this rare disorder will require identifying expectant mothers who are HPA-1 negative and

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HLA DRB3*01:01 positive and HPA-1a positive in the fetus. In collaboration with partners, we may develop screening and diagnostics tests to help us to identify individuals at risk, and the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require us to do so. The lack of screening and diagnostic tests, coupled with the fact that there is frequently limited awareness among certain health care providers concerning the rare diseases we may seek to treat, often means that a proper diagnosis can, and frequently does, take years to identify (or an appropriate diagnosis may never be made for certain patients). As a result, even if one of our product candidates is approved for commercial sale, we may not be able to grow our revenues due to difficulty in identifying eligible patients. There can be no guarantee that any of our programs will be effective at identifying patients that will benefit from our product candidates, and even if we can identify patients that our product candidates can help, the number of patients that our product candidates may ultimately treat may turn out to be lower than we expect, they may not be otherwise amenable to treatment with our product candidates, or new patients may become increasingly difficult to identify, all of which may adversely affect our ability to grow and generate revenue and adversely affect our results of operations and our business. In addition, even in instances where we are able to expand the number of patients being treated, the number may be offset by the number of patients that discontinue use of the applicable product in a given period resulting in a net loss of patients and potentially decreased revenue.

The FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities could require the clearance or approval of an in vitro diagnostic or companion diagnostic device as a condition of approval for any product candidate that requires or would commercially benefit from such tests. Failure to successfully validate, develop and obtain regulatory clearance or approval for companion diagnostics on a timely basis or at all could harm our drug development strategy and we may not realize the commercial potential of any such product candidate.

If safe and effective use of RLYB212 or any of our other product candidates depends on an in vitro diagnostic, then the FDA generally will require approval or clearance of that test, known as a companion diagnostic, at the same time that the FDA approves our product candidates. The process of development and approval of such diagnostic is time consuming and costly. Companion diagnostics, which provide information that is essential for the safe and effective use of a corresponding therapeutic product, are subject to regulation by the FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities as medical devices and require separate regulatory approval from therapeutic approval prior to commercialization. The FDA previously has required in vitro diagnostic tests intended to select the patients who will respond to a product candidate to obtain a PMA simultaneously with approval of the therapeutic candidate. The PMA process, including the gathering of preclinical and clinical data and the submission and review by the FDA, can take several years or longer. It involves a rigorous pre-market review during which the applicant must prepare and provide FDA with reasonable assurance of the device’s safety and effectiveness and information about the device and its components regarding, among other things, device design, manufacturing, and labeling. After a device is placed on the market, it remains subject to significant regulatory requirements, including requirements governing development, testing, manufacturing, distribution, marketing, promotion, labeling, import, export, record-keeping, and adverse event reporting.

 

Given our limited experience in developing and commercializing in vitro diagnostic devices, including companion diagnostic tests, we do not plan to develop such tests internally and thus will be dependent on the sustained cooperation and effort of third-party collaborators in developing and obtaining approval for these in vitro diagnostic tests. We may not be able to enter into arrangements with a provider to develop screening and/or diagnostic tests for use in connection with a registrational trial for RLYB212 or for commercialization of RLYB212, or do so on commercially reasonable terms, which could adversely affect and/or delay the development or commercialization of RLYB212. We and our future collaborators may encounter difficulties in developing and obtaining approval for such tests, including issues relating to selectivity/specificity, analytical validation, reproducibility, or clinical validation. Any delay or failure by our collaborators to develop or obtain regulatory approval of in vitro diagnostic tests could delay or prevent approval of RLYB212 or any of our other product candidates. In addition, we, our collaborators or third parties may encounter production difficulties that could constrain the supply of such tests, and both they and we may have difficulties gaining acceptance of the use of such tests by physicians. We believe that adoption of screening and treatment into clinical practice guidelines is important for market access, third-party payer reimbursement, utilization in medical practice and commercial success. Both our collaborators and we may have difficulty gaining acceptance of such screening and/or diagnostic tests into clinical practice guidelines. If such tests fail to gain market acceptance, it would have an adverse effect on our ability to derive revenues from sales, if any, of RLYB212 if it is approved for commercial sale, or any other approved products that require an in vitro diagnostic test. In addition, any collaborator or third-party with whom we contract may decide not to commercialize or to discontinue selling or manufacturing the test that we anticipate using in connection with development and commercialization of our product candidates, or our relationship with such collaborator or third-party may otherwise terminate. We may not be able to enter into arrangements with another provider to obtain

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supplies of an alternative in vitro diagnostic test for use in connection with the development and commercialization of our product candidates or do so on commercially reasonable terms, which could adversely affect and/or delay the development or commercialization of our product candidates.

We face significant competition from biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies, and our operating results will suffer if we fail to compete effectively.

The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are highly competitive and subject to significant and rapid technological change. Our success is highly dependent on our ability to acquire, develop, and obtain marketing approval for new products on a cost-effective basis and to market them successfully. If a product candidate we develop is approved, we will face intense competition. There are many public and private biopharmaceutical companies, universities, government agencies and other research organizations actively engaged in the research and development of products that may be like our product candidates or address similar markets. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology and diagnostic industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. These competitors also compete with us in establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. In addition, the number of companies seeking to develop and commercialize products and therapies competing with our product candidates is likely to increase. However, we seek to build our portfolio with key differentiating attributes to provide a competitive advantage in the markets we target. We believe RLYB212 could be a first-in-class antibody for the prevention of FNAIT, and no direct mechanistic based clinical competition currently exists. Our second product candidate, RLYB116 faces competition from a number of companies for the treatment of patients with PNH and gMG, including Soliris and Ultomiris marketed by AstraZeneca. If we successfully develop and, if approved, commercialize RLYB116, this therapy may compete, or potentially be used in conjunction, with currently marketed treatments, including Soliris and Ultomiris, and any new therapies that may become available in the future.

 

Competition could render any product candidate we develop obsolete, less competitive, or uneconomical. In addition, product candidates developed by our competitors may prove to be more safe or more effective than our product candidates. Our competitors may, among other things:

have significantly greater name recognition and financial, manufacturing, marketing, product development, technical, commercial infrastructure, and human resources than we do;
more effectively recruit and retain qualified scientific and management personnel;
more effectively establish clinical trial sites and patient registration;
develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, less expensive, more convenient, or easier to administer, or have fewer or less severe side effects;
obtain quicker regulatory approval;
better protect their patents and intellectual property or acquire technologies that are complementary to, or necessary for, our programs;
implement more effective approaches to sales, marketing, pricing, coverage, market access, and reimbursement; or
form more advantageous strategic alliances or collaborations.

 

If we are not able to effectively compete for any of the foregoing reasons, our business will be materially harmed.

Disruptions in the FDA and other government agencies caused by funding shortages or global health concerns could hinder their ability to hire and retain key leadership and other personnel, or otherwise prevent new products and services from being developed or commercialized in a timely manner, which could negatively impact our business.

The ability of the FDA to review and approve new products can be affected by a variety of factors, including government budget and funding levels, ability to hire and retain key personnel and accept the payment of user fees, and statutory, regulatory, and policy changes and other events that may otherwise affect the FDA’s ability to perform routine functions. Average review times at the agency have fluctuated in recent years as a result. In addition, government funding of other government agencies that fund research and development activities is subject to the political process, which is inherently fluid and unpredictable.

Disruptions at the FDA and other agencies may also slow the time necessary for new drugs to be reviewed or approved by necessary government agencies, which would adversely affect our business. For example, over the

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last several years, including for 35 days beginning on December 22, 2018, the U.S. government has shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the FDA, have had to furlough critical employees and stop critical activities. If a prolonged government shutdown occurs, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, on March 10, 2020, the FDA announced its intention to postpone most inspections of foreign manufacturing facilities, and on March 18, 2020, the FDA temporarily postponed routine surveillance inspections of domestic manufacturing facilities. Subsequently, on July 10, 2020, the FDA announced its intention to resume certain on-site inspections of domestic manufacturing facilities subject to a risk-based prioritization system. The FDA intends to use this risk-based assessment system to identify the categories of regulatory activity that can occur within a given geographic area, ranging from mission critical inspections to resumption of all regulatory activities. In April 2021, the FDA released additional guidance on its handling of inspections during the COVID-19 pandemic, addressing situations where the FDA may request to conduct a remote interactive evaluation. While participation in a remote interactive evaluation is voluntary, declining the FDA’s guidance could impede the FDA’s ability to make a timely regulatory decision (e.g., regarding adequacy of a clinical trial used in support of a pending application or adequacy of a drug manufacturing operation described in the application). Additionally, in July 2021, the FDA transitioned to the “base-case scenario” in its “Resiliency Roadmap for FDA Inspectional Oversight,” where the FDA will move to standard operational levels for domestic surveillance inspections, though there was another pause in domestic inspectional activities in early 2022 as a result of the COVID-19 Omicron variant, which was lifted on February 7, 2022. Regulatory authorities outside the United States may also impose similar restrictions or other policy measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. If a prolonged government shutdown occurs, or if global health concerns continue to prevent the FDA or other regulatory authorities from conducting their regular inspections, reviews, or other regulatory activities, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA or other regulatory authorities to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Even if we obtain FDA approval for a product candidate in the United States, we or our current or future collaborators may never obtain approval for or commercialize the product candidate in any other jurisdiction, which would limit our ability to realize its full market potential.

In order to market any product in a particular jurisdiction, we or our current or future collaborators must establish and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements regarding safety and efficacy on a country-by-country basis. Approval by the FDA in the United States does not ensure approval by comparable regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions. However, the failure to obtain approval in one jurisdiction may negatively impact our or our collaborators’ ability to obtain approval elsewhere. In addition, clinical trials conducted in one country may not be accepted by regulatory authorities in other countries, and regulatory approval in one country does not guarantee regulatory approval in any other country.

 

Approval processes vary among countries and can involve additional product testing and validation and additional administrative review periods. Seeking foreign regulatory approval could result in difficulties and increased costs for us and require additional preclinical studies or clinical trials which could be costly and time- consuming. Regulatory requirements can vary widely from country to country and could delay or prevent the introduction of our products in those countries. We do not have any product candidates approved for sale in any jurisdiction, including in international markets, and we do not have experience in obtaining regulatory approval in international markets. If we or our collaborators fail to comply with regulatory requirements in international markets or to obtain and maintain required approvals, or if regulatory approvals in international markets are delayed, our target market will be reduced and we will be unable to realize the full market potential of any product we develop.

Even if we obtain regulatory approval for any of our product candidates, we will still face extensive and ongoing regulatory requirements and obligations and continued regulatory review, which may result in significant additional expense, and we may be subject to penalties if we fail to comply with regulatory requirements or experience unanticipated problems with any product candidates.

Any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval, along with the manufacturing processes, post-approval preclinical and clinical testing, labeling, packaging, distribution, adverse event reporting, storage, recordkeeping, export, import, and advertising and promotional activities for such product, among other things, will be subject to extensive and ongoing requirements of the FDA and other regulatory authorities. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post- marketing information and reports, establishment registration and drug listing requirements, continued compliance with cGMP requirements regarding the distribution of samples to physicians and recordkeeping and GLP and GCP requirements for non-clinical studies and any clinical trials that we conduct post-approval.

 

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The FDA may also require costly post-marketing studies or clinical trials and surveillance to monitor the safety or efficacy of a product. Additionally, the FDA closely regulates the post-approval marketing and promotion of drugs to ensure drugs are marketed only for the approved indications and in a manner that is consistent with the provisions of the approved labeling. If we market our products for uses beyond their approved indications or otherwise inconsistent with the FDA-approved labeling, we may be subject to enforcement action for off-label marketing by the FDA and other federal and state enforcement agencies, including the Department of Justice. Violation of the FDCA and other statutes, including the False Claims Act, and equivalent legislation in other countries relating to the promotion and advertising of prescription products may also lead to investigations or allegations of violations of federal and state and other countries’ health care fraud and abuse laws and state consumer protection laws. Even if it is later determined we were not in violation of these laws, we may be faced with negative publicity, incur significant expenses defending our actions and have to divert significant management resources from other matters.

 

In addition, later discovery of previously unknown adverse events or other problems with our products, manufacturers, or manufacturing processes or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may yield various results, including, but not limited to:

restrictions on manufacturing such products;
restrictions in the labeling or on the marketing of products;
restrictions on product distribution or use;
requirements to conduct post-marketing studies or additional post-marketing clinical trials;
issuance of warning letters or untitled letters;
refusal to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications that we submit, or delays in such approvals;
recalls or market withdrawals of products;
fines, restitution, or disgorgement of profits or revenues;
suspension or termination of ongoing clinical trials;
suspension or withdrawal of marketing approvals;
refusal to permit the import or export of our products;
product seizure; and
injunctions, consent decrees, or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties.

 

If we obtain FDA approval for RLYB212 or RLYB116, safety risks not identified in our prior clinical trials may first appear after we obtain approval and commercialize these product candidates. Any new post-marketing adverse events may significantly impact our ability to market the drugs and may require that we recall and discontinue commercialization of the products. Furthermore, if any confirmatory post-marketing trial fails to confirm the clinical profile or clinical benefits of RLYB212 or RLYB116, the FDA may withdraw its approval, which would materially harm our business.

 

We also cannot predict the likelihood, nature, or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative or executive action, either in the United States or abroad. Further, the FDA’s, EMA’s and other comparable regulatory authorities’ policies may change, and additional government regulations may be enacted that could prevent, limit, or delay regulatory approval of a product candidate or increase the costs and regulatory burden of commercialization. If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any marketing approval that we may have obtained, and we may not achieve or sustain profitability, which would adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, and results of operations. Furthermore, non-compliance by us or any collaborator with regulatory requirements, including safety monitoring or pharmacovigilance, may also result in significant financial penalties, which would adversely affect our business.

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We may seek Fast Track designation, Breakthrough Therapy designation, or PRIME designation for our product candidates, but we might not receive any such designation, and even if we do, such designation may not actually lead to a faster development or regulatory review or approval process.

If a drug is intended for the treatment of a serious or life-threatening condition, and non-clinical or clinical data demonstrate the potential to address an unmet medical need for this condition, the product candidate may qualify for FDA Fast Track designation, for which sponsors must apply. Sponsors of fast-track products may have more frequent interactions with the FDA, and, in some circumstances, the FDA may initiate review of sections of a fast track product’s application before the application is complete. We may submit an application for Fast Track designation for RLYB212 and RLYB116. The FDA has broad discretion whether to grant this designation, and we may not receive it. Moreover, even if we receive Fast Track designation, Fast Track designation does not ensure that we will receive marketing approval or that approval will be granted within any particular time frame. We may not experience a faster development or regulatory review or approval process with Fast Track designation compared to conventional FDA procedures. In addition, the FDA may withdraw Fast Track designation if it believes that the designation is no longer supported by data from our clinical development program. Fast Track designation alone does not guarantee qualification for the FDA’s priority review procedures.

 

We also may seek a Breakthrough Therapy designation for RLYB212 or other product candidates if future results support such designation. A Breakthrough Therapy is defined as a drug (including biologic) that is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other drugs, to treat a serious condition, and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints, such as substantial treatment effects observed early in clinical development. Sponsors of products that have been designated as breakthrough therapies are eligible to receive more intensive FDA guidance on establishing an efficient drug development program, an organization commitment involving senior managers, and may be eligible for rolling review. Drugs designated as breakthrough therapies by the FDA may also be eligible for other expedited review programs, including accelerated approval and priority review, if supported by clinical data at the time the BLA or NDA is submitted to the FDA.

 

Designation as a Breakthrough Therapy is within the discretion of the FDA. Accordingly, even if we believe that RLYB212 meets the criteria for designation as a Breakthrough Therapy, the FDA may disagree and instead determine not to make such designation. Even if we receive Breakthrough Therapy designation, the receipt of such designation may not result in a faster development or regulatory review or approval process compared to drugs considered for approval under conventional FDA procedures and does not assure ultimate approval by the FDA. In addition, even if RLYB212 qualifies as a Breakthrough Therapy, the FDA may later decide that RLYB212 no longer meets the conditions for qualification or decide that the time period for FDA review or approval will not be shortened.

 

In the EU we may seek PRIME designation for some of our product candidates in the future. PRIME is a voluntary program aimed at enhancing the EMA’s role to reinforce scientific and regulatory support in order to optimize development and enable accelerated assessment of new medicines that are of major public health interest with the potential to address unmet medical needs. The program focuses on medicines that target conditions for which there exists no satisfactory method of treatment in the EU or even if such a method exists, it may offer a major therapeutic advantage over existing treatments. PRIME is limited to medicines under development and not authorized in the EU and the applicant intends to apply for an initial marketing authorization application through the centralized procedure. To be accepted for PRIME, a product candidate must meet the eligibility criteria in respect of its major public health interest and therapeutic innovation based on information that can substantiate the claims. The benefits of a PRIME designation include the appointment of a CHMP rapporteur to provide continued support and help to build knowledge ahead of a marketing authorization application, early dialogue and scientific advice at key development milestones, and the potential to qualify products for accelerated review, meaning reduction in the review time for an opinion on approvability to be issued earlier in the application process. PRIME enables an applicant to request parallel EMA scientific advice and health technology assessment advice to facilitate timely market access. Even if we receive PRIME designation for any of our product candidates, the designation may not result in a materially faster development process, review or approval compared to conventional EMA procedures. Further, obtaining PRIME designation does not assure or increase the likelihood of EMA’s grant of a marketing authorization.

We may be unsuccessful in obtaining or may be unable to maintain the benefits associated with orphan drug designation, including the potential for market exclusivity. If our competitors are able to obtain orphan drug exclusivity for products that constitute the same drug and treat the same indications as

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RLYB212 and RLYB116 or any of our other product candidates, we may not be able to have competing products approved by the applicable regulatory authority for a significant period of time.

Regulatory authorities in some jurisdictions, including the United States and the EU may designate drugs for relatively small patient populations as orphan drugs. Under the U.S. Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may designate a drug as an orphan drug if it is a drug intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally defined as a patient population of fewer than 200,000 individuals annually in the United States, or a patient population of more than 200,000 in the United States where there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing the drug will be recovered from sales in the United States. In the EU, the EMA’s Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products evaluates, and the European Commission grants, an orphan drug designation principally to promote the development of products that are intended for the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of a life-threatening or chronically debilitating condition affecting not more than five in 10,000 persons in the EU. In addition, the product under consideration is indicated for a condition where there exists no satisfactory method of diagnosis, prevention or treatment authorized in the EU or, if such method exists, that the medicinal product will be of significant benefit to those affected by that condition. Each of the FDA and the European Commission has granted orphan drug designation for RLYB211 and RLYB212 for the treatment of FNAIT. We may seek orphan drug designation in the United States and the EU for our other product candidates but may be unsuccessful in doing so. There can be no assurance that the FDA or the EMA’s Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products will consider orphan designation for any indication for which we apply or re-apply, or that we will be able to maintain such designation. In the United States, orphan drug designation entitles a party to financial incentives such as opportunities for grant funding towards clinical trial costs, tax advantages and user-fee waivers. Orphan drug designation neither shortens the development time or regulatory review time of a drug nor gives the drug any advantage in the regulatory review or approval process.

 

If a product candidate with an orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first marketing approval for the indication for which it has such designation, the product is entitled to a period of marketing exclusivity, which precludes the EMA or the FDA from approving another marketing application for the same drug or biologic for the same orphan designation for that time period, except in limited circumstances, such as a showing of clinical superiority to the product with orphan drug exclusivity or where the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient product quantity. In the United States, the exclusivity period is seven years. The applicable exclusivity period is ten years in Europe, but such exclusivity period can be reduced to six years in Europe if a product no longer meets the criteria for orphan designation or if the product is sufficiently profitable so that market exclusivity is no longer justified. Moreover, orphan drug exclusive marketing rights in the United States may be lost if the FDA later determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient quantity of the drug to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition. Similarly, in the EU, the market exclusivity can be broken if the holder of the marketing authorization for the original orphan medicinal product is unable to supply sufficient quantities of the medicinal product. In addition, in both the United States and EU, if a different drug is subsequently approved for marketing for the same or a similar indication as any of our product candidates that receive marketing approval, we may face increased competition and lose market share regardless of orphan drug exclusivity, which only protects against approval of the “same” drug for the same indication.

We may seek accelerated approval by the FDA for one or more of our product candidates. Accelerated approval by the FDA, even if granted for any of our product candidates, may not lead to a faster development or regulatory review or approval process and it does not increase the likelihood that our product candidates will receive marketing approval.

We may in the future seek an accelerated approval for our one or more of our product candidates. Under the accelerated approval program, the FDA may grant accelerated approval to a product candidate designed to treat a serious or life-threatening condition that provides meaningful therapeutic benefit over available therapies upon a determination that the product candidate has an effect on a surrogate endpoint or intermediate clinical endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. As a condition of approval, the FDA requires that a sponsor of a product receiving accelerated approval perform a post-marketing confirmatory clinical trial or trials. In addition, the FDA currently requires as a condition for accelerated approval the pre-submission of promotional materials to FDA for review.

 

Prior to seeking accelerated approval for any of our product candidates, we intend to seek feedback from the FDA and will otherwise evaluate our ability to seek and receive accelerated approval. There can be no assurance that after our evaluation of the feedback and other factors we will decide to pursue or submit a BLA for accelerated approval or any other form of expedited development, review or approval. Furthermore, if we decide to submit an application for accelerated approval there can be no assurance that such submission or application will be accepted or that the FDA will determine that the product candidate is eligible for or grant accelerated approval. A

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failure to obtain any planned accelerated approval for our product candidates would result in a longer time period to commercialization of our product candidates, if approved, could increase the cost of development of our product candidates and could harm our competitive position in the marketplace. If we receive accelerated approval for any of our product candidates, the FDA may withdraw accelerated approval if, among other things, a confirmatory trial required to verify the predicted clinical benefit of the product fails to verify such benefit or if such trial is not conducted with due diligence. Withdrawal of any accelerated approval could substantially harm our business.

Although RLYB212 has received FDA designation as rare pediatric disease drug products, any marketing application we submit for RLYB212 may not qualify for issuance of a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher.

In the United States, RLYB211 and RLYB212 have received designation from the FDA as rare pediatric disease drug products. Receipt of rare pediatric disease designation is a prerequisite to qualifying for receipt of a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher upon approval of a marketing application for the rare pediatric disease drug product. The priority review voucher may be used to obtain priority review of a future marketing application that would not otherwise qualify to receive priority review. Priority review shortens the FDA’s goal for taking action on a marketing application from ten months to six months for an original BLA or NDA from the date of filing. As an alternative to using the priority review voucher to obtain priority review of one of its own marketing applications, the sponsor of a rare pediatric disease drug product receiving a priority review voucher may also sell or otherwise transfer the voucher to another company. The voucher may be further transferred any number of times before the voucher is used, as long as the sponsor making the transfer has not yet submitted an application relying on the priority review voucher. The FDA may also revoke any rare pediatric disease priority review voucher if the rare pediatric disease product for which the voucher was awarded is not marketed in the United States within one year following the date of approval.

 

There is no guarantee that, if we ever submit and obtain approval for RLYB212 or any other product candidate for which we may obtain rare pediatric disease designation in the future, we will receive a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher. In addition to receiving rare pediatric disease designation, in order to receive a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher, the NDA or BLA must be granted priority review, rely on clinical data derived from studies examining a pediatric population and dosages of the drug intended for that population, not seek approval for a different adult indication in the original rare pediatric disease product application and be for a drug that does not include a previously approved active ingredient. Under current statutory sunset provisions, even if a marketing application meets all of these requirements, the FDA may only award a voucher prior to September 30, 2026 and only if the approved product received rare pediatric disease drug product designation prior to September 30, 2024. We cannot be certain that we will receive approval for any of our rare pediatric disease designated products prior to the statutory sunset date, if ever. Moreover, even if we believe that our marketing application meets the other requirements to be eligible to receive a priority review voucher upon approval, the FDA may disagree.

The successful commercialization of any product candidate we develop will depend in part on the extent to which regulatory authorities and private health insurers establish coverage and reimbursement. Failure to obtain or maintain coverage and reimbursement for our product candidates, if approved, could limit our or our collaborators’ ability to market those products and decrease our or our collaborators’ ability to generate revenue.

If any product candidate is approved for marketing, our ability to obtain coverage and reimbursement for any such product by governmental healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, private health insurers, and other third-party payors is essential for most patients to be able to afford prescription medications. Our ability to achieve acceptable levels of coverage and reimbursement for products or procedures using our products by regulatory authorities, private health insurers and other third-party payors will therefore have an effect on our ability to successfully commercialize any product candidates we develop. We cannot be sure that coverage and reimbursement will be available for our product candidates, if and when such candidates obtain marketing approval, and any reimbursement that may become available may not be adequate or may be decreased or eliminated in the future.

 

Moreover, increasing efforts by governmental and third-party payors in the United States to cap or reduce healthcare costs may cause third-party payors to limit both coverage and the level of reimbursement for newly approved products and, as a result, they may not cover or provide adequate payment for any product we commercialize. We expect to experience pricing pressures in connection with the sale of our product candidates due to the trend toward managed health care and additional legislative, administrative, or regulatory changes. The downward pressure on healthcare costs in general, particularly prescription drugs and biologics and surgical procedures and other treatments, has become intense and new products face increasing challenges in entering

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the market successfully. Third-party payors are increasingly challenging the price and examining the cost-effectiveness of new products in addition to their safety and efficacy. To obtain or maintain coverage and reimbursement for any current or future product, we may need to conduct expensive pharmacoeconomic studies to demonstrate the medical necessity and cost-effectiveness of our product. These studies will be in addition to the studies required to obtain regulatory approvals.

 

We may also need to provide discounts to purchasers to encourage purchasing of any approved product and rebates to third party payors to increase the possibility of favorable coverage and adequate cost sharing thresholds for patients. We may be required to provide discounts or rebates on any approved product under government healthcare programs or to certain government and private purchasers in order to obtain coverage under federal health care programs such as Medicaid. Participation in such programs would require us to track and report certain drug prices. We may be subject to fines and other penalties if we fail to report such prices accurately.

 

No uniform policy for coverage and reimbursement for products exists among third-party payors in the United States. Therefore, coverage and reimbursement for products can differ significantly from payor to payor, and one third-party payor’s decision to cover a particular product does not ensure that other payors will also provide similar coverage. Additionally, the process for determining whether a third-party payor will provide coverage for a product is typically separate from the process for setting the price of such product or establishing the reimbursement rate that the payor will pay for the product once coverage is approved. As a result, the coverage determination process is often a time-consuming and costly process that will require us to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of our product candidates to each payor separately, with no assurance that coverage and reimbursement will be obtained or will be consistent across payors. Furthermore, rules and regulations regarding reimbursement change frequently, in some cases at short notice, and we believe that changes in these rules and regulations are likely. If reimbursement is not available or is available only at limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize our product candidates and may not be able to obtain a satisfactory financial return on our product candidates.

 

We or our collaborators may also be subject to extensive governmental price controls and other market regulations outside of the United States, and we believe the increasing emphasis on cost-containment initiatives in other countries have and will continue to put pressure on the pricing and usage of medical products. In many countries, the prices of medical products are subject to varying price control mechanisms as part of national health systems. Other countries allow companies to fix their own prices for medical products but monitor and control company profits. Additional foreign price controls or other changes in pricing regulation could restrict the amount that we or our collaborators are able to charge for products we or our collaborators commercialize. Accordingly, in markets outside of the United States, the reimbursement for products we or our collaborators commercialize may be reduced compared with the United States and may be insufficient to generate commercially reasonable revenue and profits.

Even if a product candidate we develop receives marketing approval, it may fail to achieve market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors or others in the medical community necessary for commercial success.

Even if our product candidates receive regulatory approval, they may not gain market acceptance among physicians, patients, healthcare payors and the medical community. Commercial success also will depend, in large part, on the coverage and reimbursement of our product candidates and associated screening and/or diagnostic tests by third-party payors, including private insurance providers and government payors. Various factors will influence whether our product candidates are accepted in the market if approved for commercial sale, including, but not limited to:

the efficacy, safety and tolerability of our products, and potential advantages compared to alternative treatments;
the clinical indications for which the product is approved, and product labeling or product insert requirements of the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities, including any limitations or warnings contained in a product’s approved labeling;
the effectiveness of sales and marketing efforts;